5.3.4.2. Contributing at the National Level

Probably individual and community efforts are the most important, but action at the national level can coordinate changes or make them a matter of policy. Making the policy can feed back positively into community and individual actions as well.

The national level itself is quite fuzzy. Although people group into families and communities, there are many possible groups between the individual and the national. The responsibilities of each group may be determined at the national level, or certainly through a process involving the national, regional, local and personal levels. Thus, some things may be more appropriately controlled at a county, state or province level, such as collecting taxes for roads. Other things, such as health insurance, may be best directed at a national level, to ensure the equity of distribution.

 

5.3.4.2.1. Catastrophic & Normal Steps for a Nation

These steps are in line with the prevailing culture. The national level can balance the changes-perhaps one leader would act like a shaman in Desana society, who is responsible for acknowledging the ecological limits and suggesting the behavior required to stay within those limits. Some of the following steps may seem revolutionary. Unfortunately, revolutions have the connotations of violence and otherthrow. Revolutions can be as quiet and regular, and unthreatening, as the turnover of an axle on a wagon or car. Thomas Jefferson suggested little revolutions, every couple of decades in the U.S. to make the experiment fresh, as well as break up unproductive hierarchies of power. We could start these revolutions with many small steps, as long as they did not contradict any of the values of a culture or any norms for behavior.

Adopting a catastrophic psychology for the nation, to address current and imminent losses, is less revolutionary and more an appropriate response to larger scale catastrophes, such as the national loses of biological and cultural heritages. Poverty and inequity are growing problems in every nation. These are reasons to adopt an extreme attitude towards survival.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1. Changing Nation as a Larger Self

As humanity is extended throughout culture and nature, the human self interpenetrates so much that it becomes a larger self. The nation is at a level of the stereotype of the people of a culture, the sum of their behaviors, as it were. It is the larger self within enveloping self of the environment. The nation has to change itself, and recognize the extension of itself in nature, before it can make other changes. National behavior emerges from the individual behaviors of the participants.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.1. Define & Secure Borders for a Nation

Borders are a crucial part of a nation, to keep its identity and define its territory. Borders form the skin that acts as an organ to keep vital processes and cycles inside and allow needed energy and materials to come inside. A nation has to decide what kind of borders to maintain, with what degree of openness. The amount of openness allows the renewal and protection of some areas. Leopold Kohr points out that much violence between nations is the result of bad divisions between them. The alternatives to bad division are unification or good division.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.2. Balance Isolation & Connectivity for a Nation

A nation has to control its relative degree of isolation from other nations. Isolation offers many advantages and a few disadvantages. It allows differentiation, of language and invention, that can reinforce the identity of a culture. It can offer safety from conquest by overwhelming force. Too much isolation, however, can lead to lack of stimulation and ingrown customs.

A nation has to regulate the amount of trade and the kinds of trade. It has to decide how to participate with other nations, whether to ignore them or compete with them, and how. It has to play a part in regional and global processes.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.3. Balance Immigration with Emigration for a Nation

Some people will always be uncomfortable with the dominant culture of a nation and wish to find a more compatible or resonant culture, after leaving their native culture. Others will always be attracted by the unique qualities of another culture and want to join it. Nations may also try to balance certain skills and subpopulations with its overall goals, depending on their trade specializations.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.4. Secure Treaties with Neighbors for a Nation

In addition to having secure borders, a nation has to normalize relationships with its close or regional neighbors. Such official agreements would spell out the extents of exchanges.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.5. Set Standards for a Nation

Standards are models or examples of quality or value established by authority or consent that can be repeated as procedures. Standards can be used to certify practices. A nation has to set standards for requirements, tariffs, protections, and for emissions and other things. A nation should also set the official standards for those things necessary for political interactions or economic production.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.5.1. Ecosystem Standards for a Nation

Ecosystem standards would start with zoning. In a typical meso-ecosystem, a minimum area, comprising at least fifty percent, would be left wild. A smaller area, perhaps thirty percent, would be set aside for conservation of forests and rangelands. Based on the planned population, at least fifteen percent would be set aside for agricultural areas to feed the population. City and artificial areas would be restricted to the remaining small percentages, of the least productivity. In cases where the city area exceeded that maximum percentage, an equal area of rooftops or pavement areas would have to be dedicated to agricultural activities. Thus, there would be no limit to house density, only coverage area, and that would be directly related to primary areas.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.5.2. Social Standards for a Nation

A nation has to have standards for the health of its people. It has to describe the minimum kinds of housing, utilities, and cleanliness. It also has to decide how much looseness and cheating are allowed.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.5.3. Economic Trade Standards for a Nation

This means that tariffs may be needed for the protection of the manufacturing of special trade items. Nations should have the right to reject trade items that go against their laws or moral codes, or that may be hazardous to people or their environment.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.5.4. Technology Standards for a Nation

Standards need to be set for those things related to transportation, such as the extent and quality of roads, as well as the safety and efficiency of cars. These days, the average new car is less fuel-efficient than the one it replaces. Nearly 50 per cent of Canada's new-car sales are gas-guzzling, CO2-spewing vans, small trucks and sports utility vehicles (SUVs); the average SUV emits two to three times as much greenhouse gas as the average compact car. Even if a van is necessary to transport the whole family, there are ranges of choices in terms of quality and gas-mileage. The choice can make a ton of difference in C02 emissions every year, literally. Gasoline-powered vans and cars can be converted to hydrogen or waste oils.

Unlike aviation, most countries do not have a feedback process to make automobiles or boats safer. Every nation could create a department analyzing every accident and making requirements for standards and behaviors and infrastructure changes. Few nations have national building standards, either.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6. Establishing Rights for a Nation

Rights, as an extension of ethics, are simply rules for living together. A nation has to codify those rights so that they will respected by all the residents, not just those who share the dominant culture.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.1. Rights for Nature in a Nation

Rights seem to follow the expansion of the sphere of ethics, as formal statements of intuitive knowledge. But codifying rights is more difficult, especially for philosophers, who tend to limit rights with a series of restrictions. Paul Shepard says the argument is not new, and that its application is ambiguous because 'unlimited rights' will conflict with human interest. But, there are two bad assumptions: That human interests are not ambiguous-they are-and that animals will be granted unlimited rights-they will not.

The strongest argument for rights is interrelatedness in communities, which is the basis for assigning rights to nature. Garret Hardin considers interrelatedness, but interprets it narrowly. He considers rights as rules of competition; every right is a ploy in the struggle for existence, and every right implies an obligation to furnish it. This is good as far as it goes. However, life is more than competition; it involves cooperation and play. Rights are formal rules for living together. It is foolish not to assign rights to animals, plants, and the earth because of contractual formalities. The reverence for all beings is concerned with the right functioning and right numbers in the right places, according to standards of health and quality of life.

Humanity has taken its own opportunities. These opportunities have been codified for centuries as rights. Now, we must allow other beings equal opportunities. The interrelatedness of life dictates the interrelatedness of rights. And these rights are necessary to the integrity of the whole planet. Humanity developed in a community of animals and plants, as part of a clade on the same tree of life. The quality of human life has always depended on the quality of animal life. Animals have sensations and feelings, as important to them as ours are to us. Furthermore, the extension of rights to animals and plants does not deny any traditional human rights. Animals should be accorded higher moral regard and legal standing to reflect the intrinsic worth afforded by their existence and sentience. Welfare laws to conserve species and to guarantee humane treatment in research, transportation, and slaughter indicate a growing concern among people. A new ethic can keep animals free from human intervention, prejudice, or overuse. Animals should be preserved because they are as they are; their existence is moral justification. Their intrinsic worth is independent of the instrumental values imposed on them by humanity.

One problem with the current legal system is that all nonhuman beings are given the status of inferior human beings, legal incompetents, thus keeping humans in a guardian role. A new legal category is needed that would respect the existence, competence, and excellence of natural beings. Christopher Stone recognizes that the judicial system has granted rights to a variety of inanimate holders, trusts, corporations, and nations, for instance. The legal system already operates with fictions, so the extension to natural entities should not present an insurmountable problem.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.1.1. Space to Exist & Opportunity to Flourish

Every species has to be allowed the opportunity to live, even species that we fear or dislike, such as sharks or viruses. We do not know how these species contribute to the whole process of nature. Giving other species opportunities does not mean sacrificing any human ambitions. It only means limiting human influence and interference to a percentage of the earth, perhaps 40 or 45 percent.

In our control of conservation or artificial areas, which include many wild species, we can imitate the process of ecosystems by allowing birds, bats, and other animals opportunity to distribute seeds and energy to other areas or to prey on their prey, which may be our 'pests.'

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.1.2. Freedom from Premature Death Extinction & Suffering

Animals do not need to be saved from natural death, which is a great regulator of life, but from unnecessary suffering, experimentation, and premature extinction. The world would not be a better place without sharks, silverfish, rats, cockroaches, or hyenas. They need their own places, where they can take their own opportunities, live or die. The places, entire ecosystems, need to be saved. If we diminish variety in nature, we debase its stability and wholeness, which we need.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2. Establish Rights for People in a Nation

Humanity has the right to coexist in healthy diverse, sustainable conditions. The basic things expected by people of their political and economic systems are simple. They are: Equality of opportunity for youth and for others; jobs for those who can work; security for those who need it; the ending of special privilege for the few; the preservation of civil liberties for all; the enjoyment of the fruits of scientific progress in a wider and, a constantly rising standard of living.

Human rights refers to the concept of human beings as having universal rights, or status, regardless of legal jurisdiction or other localizing factors, such as ethnicity and nationality. The existence, validity and the content of human rights continue to be the subject to debate in philosophy and political science. Legally, human rights are defined in international law and covenants, and further, in the domestic laws of many states. However, for many people the doctrine of human rights goes beyond law and forms a fundamental moral basis for regulating the contemporary geo-political order.

Human rights are taken to be inherent, universal, indivisible and inalienable. This means that everyone has them, they are the same for everyone, all are equally important, and they can not be taken away. Although a right can not be taken away it can be violated.

Human rights are divided into seven categories: Civil Rights (equality before the law), Political Rights (participate in government, life, liberty), Economic Rights (right to work, get a living wage), Social rights (having children, education, healthcare), Cultural rights (preserve a cultural identity, language, practices), Environmental Rights (a healthy environment, clean drinking water, unpolluted air), and Developmental Rights (the rights of developing countries to control their own resources.)

Human rights are sometimes divided into negative and positive rights. Negative human rights, which follow mainly from the Anglo-American legal tradition, denote actions that a government should not take. These are codified in the United States Bill of Rights, the English Bill of Rights and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and include right to life and security of person; freedom from slavery; equality before the law and due process under the rule of law; freedom of movement; and freedoms of speech, religion and assembly.

Positive human rights follow mainly from the Rousseauan Continental European legal tradition, which denotes rights that the state is obliged to protect and provide. Examples of such rights include: The rights to education, to a livelihood, to legal equality. Positive rights have been codified in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in many 20th-century constitutions.

Most governing bodies emphasize the importance of some rights over others. Because the United States is a strong advocate of civil and political rights but does not support social, cultural and economic rights, a categorization offered by Karel Vasak is the three generations of human rights: First-generation civil and political rights, second-generation economic, social and cultural rights, and third-generation solidarity rights. Out of these generations, the third generation is the most debated and lacks both legal and political recognition.

Numerous theoretical approaches have been advanced to explain how human rights become part of social expectations. The biological theory considers the comparative reproductive advantage of human social behavior based on empathy and altruism in the context of natural selection. Other theories hold that human rights codify moral behavior, which is a human, social product developed by a process of biological and social evolution (associated with Hume) or as a sociological pattern of rule setting (as in the sociological theory of law and the work of Weber). This approach includes the notion that individuals in a society accept rules from legitimate authority in exchange for security and economic advantage (as in Rawls).

Natural law theories base human rights on the 'natural' moral order based on religious precepts, the assumed common understandings of justice, or the belief that moral behavior is a set of objectively valid prescriptions. In legend, literature, religion and political thought, justice, and eventually the concept of human rights, became socially constructed over time into complex webs of social interaction striving toward a social order in which human beings are treated fairly. Religious societies tend to try to justify human rights through religious arguments. For example, liberal movements within Islam have tried to use the Qur'an to support human rights in a Muslim context.

Other theories are based on human agency, positing such constructs for agreement to rules on the utilitarian principles mediated by public reasoning. The social evolution model is based on human needs and struggle that incorporates an analysis of the norm-creating process. Values become norms through the constitutive process of authoritative decision-making. Such norms may take the form of law through a particular form of authoritative decision making of institutions associated with a legal system. It is the process of public reasoning through human rights norm-creating that progressively weeds out the culturally bound behaviors that are inconsistent with contemporary human rights. In this sense, culturally particular norms adapt to evolving human rights standards as defined in national constitutions and international human rights instruments.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2.1. Basic Rights in a Nation

Nations have to decide the kinds of rights and guarantee them to their citizens. Some of these basic rights would always include the right to a healthy environment or the right to be secure.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2.1.1. Right to Healthy Environment Air Water

Principle 1 of the Rio Declaration of the UN states that human beings are "at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature." While it fell short of recognizing a healthy environment as a basic human right, Principle 1 points in that direction. People need to be assured of having clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2.1.2. Right to be Secure

The right to be secure can mean many things. It can mean to be free from invasion of your home. It can mean access to wilderness or land where you can provide for yourself. Insecurity is a way of life for people living in poverty; it means that they might survive, if everything improves and nothing goes wrong, but neither of those is a likely scenario. If.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2.1.3. Right to Opportunity for a Minimum Home

If you cannot afford one, you can ask for help. If you cannot get help, you can build your own. If you cannot build one, you can live in a group. The right is in the opportunity, not in the ownership. Most people can make or buy homes, if the circumstances are promising.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2.1.4. Right to Opportunity to Minimum Work

Every person should have the right to work and to receive a living wage for their work. Some nations exhibits their legislative unwillingness to support nonworking adults by forcing them off government assistance. Others who do sacrifice and work very hard do not earn enough to lift themselves and their children out of poverty. When current economic and legal arrangements hurt individuals, families, and communities, then something needs to change. A change in the laws, or in the Constitution, could provide every citizen with the right to an opportunity for employment at a living wage.

A nation must guarantee everyone an opportunity to work at a living wage. Most people want work, meaningful work. People want to contribute to their own well-being, as well as to that of their family, community and nation. It is in the common interest of the community and nation that people who work should not be poor or dependent on others for support.

Millions of people are seeking work. Organizations, such as Oxfam, try to help people and communities to achieve 'sustainable livelihoods,' that is, a means of living that can maintain itself over time, and can cope with and recover from shocks. Oxfam has found that even small shocks, such as a broken washing machine or an unexpectedly large fuel bill, can trigger an imbalance of income and expenditure, and can lead to a downward spiral into debt, anxiety and despair. There are many factors, such as lack of access to affordable credit, which forces people to borrow from moneylenders at extortionary interest rates, that prevent livelihoods from being sustainable. However, there are many more factors, such as social networks, education, personal skills, and accessible transportation, that contribute to the sustainability of livelihood.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2.2. Tradable Rights

Many rights, such as the right to reproduce are partial social rights. As such they must be traded, through a voucher system, to acquire the right to an entire child or for a certain level of luxury. Other rights, such as the right to a healthy environment, can be traded for luxuries or larger populations.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2.2.1. Right to Reproduce

People have the right to have children, but this right changes in the context of overpopulation and child mistreatment and abandonment. The right is limited when natural or social services are limited.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2.2.2. Right to Share in Luxury

What is luxury? How can we deal with luxury goods provided by a free market intent on maximizing profits? Industrial consumption is undermining the environmental resource base. It is exacerbating inequalities. And, the dynamics of the consumption-poverty-inequality-environment nexus are accelerating. If the trends continue without change-not redistributing income from higher to lower-income consumers, not shifting from polluting to cleaner goods and production technologies, not promoting goods that empower poor producers, not shifting priority from conspicuous consumption to meeting basic need-then the problems will get worse.

An equally critical issue is not gross consumption itself but its patterns and effects. Inequalities in consumption are stark. Globally, the 20% of the people in the highest-income countries account for 86% of total private consumption expenditures - the poorest 20% of people get a minuscule 1.3%. More specifically, the richest fifth: Consume 45% of all meat and fish (the poorest fifth only 5%); consume 58% of total energy (the poorest fifth less than 4%); have 74% of all telephone lines (the poorest fifth 1.5%); consume 84% of all paper (the poorest fifth 1.1%); and, own 87% of the world's vehicle fleet (the poorest fifth less than 1%). Runaway growth in consumption in the past 50 years is putting strains on the environment never before seen.

And consider the following expenditures that reflect world priorities: Eight billion dollars for cosmetics in the United States; eleven billion dollars for ice cream in Europe; twelve billion for perfumes in Europe and the United States; seventeen billion for pet foods in Europe and the United States; thirty-five billion for business entertainment in Japan; fifty billion for cigarettes in Europe; one hundred and five billion for alcoholic drinks in Europe; four hundred billion for narcotic drugs in the world; and, seven hundred billion dollars for military spending in the world.

Then, compare that to what was estimated as additional costs to achieve universal access to basic social services in all developing countries: six billion dollars for basic education for all; nine billion for water and sanitation for all; twelve billion for reproductive health for all women; and, thirteen billion dollars for basic health and nutrition for all.[i]

Data from the World Bank for 2003 suggests that these numbers have only very slightly changed in five years; people in the world's high income countries account for 81.5% of total private consumption expenditures-people in the world's low income countries account for just 3.6%. The World Bank data does not include the type of breakdown that the 1998 Human Development Report indicates, and while those numbers will of course be different now, they enforce the stark inequalities in consumption.

What would happen if everyone tried to exercise their right to some luxury? Would those spoiled by, and now needing, high levels of luxury refuse to share it?

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.2.2.3. Other Rights

Other rights, such as for basic ecological services, could be controlled by issuing tradable shares for those services. The number of shares would depend on calculations for resources and optimum populations.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.6.3. Work to Establish Justice

Although many new rights are being extended to cover all of humanity and much of nature, new nations can demand to participate in a common justice. Rights and their obligations, after being reduced to principles of equity, can be addressed by justice, through standards and laws.

A principle of justice based on need can be extended to the ultrahuman community. To be sure, it needs to be altered to account for unconscious, interdependent beings.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.7. Represent All People of Nation

A nation has to give equal representation to everyone in its borders. Although distinctions will be made between citizens, noncitizens, visitors, and tourists, each will be represented to some degree.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.7.1. Obligation to Protect Rights & Privileges

A nation is obligated to protect the rights and privileges that have been defined and agreed upon. Citizens will have more rights and privileges than noncitizens or visitors, because they pay for them with taxes and participation.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.7.2. Obligation to Meet Basic Needs of People of Nation

A nation is obligated to provide for the basic needs of those people, and, for this reason, has some decision in how many people there are and how they can sustain themselves.

 

5.3.4.2.1.1.7.3. Integrate Everyone into Society of a Nation

A nation needs to be able to integrate people into its society. This often happens with a dominant culture and language, but it has to happen if there are equal cultures or several minority cultures. The nation has be decide how people can communicate, and how they can minimize conflict or stress.

 

5.3.4.2.1.2. Amend Constitution to Control Corporations & Groups

Every nation has created a formal or informal constitution. The Constitution guarantees a series of rights, such as protection, ownership of property, and a healthy environment. It also guarantees a series of freedoms, such as expression, religion, choice, assembly, association, and the petition of grievances. It prescribes some duties, such as voting or respect for others. And, it has a number of goals: Stability of government through transitions; predictability of the laws; and, common rules shared by all. In many nations, it may be necessary to amend the constitution, not just to reflect new international standards and agreements, but to reflect the new responsibilities of nations themselves, and of their constituents, especially powerful groups or large corporations with dominating influences.

For individuals, leaders, and corporations, both local and international, the constitution has to define limits to behaviors. Laws have to apply to large organizations, which are by no means necessarily private, or individuals or responsible. They must be liable for their behavior and effects. The nation has to reinstate the system of balances and checks, and government by law, with no exceptions.

 

5.3.4.2.1.2.1. Encourage Small Businesses for a Nation

Small business allows local employment, quick adjustments, and innovation. Small businesses built the United States in that country's first century; even today U.S. citizens hold high regard for small businesses, whose flexibility has provided lessons for big businesses. Nearly 98 percent of all Canadian businesses are small businesses. Small businesses contribute significantly to the economy of a nation, in innovation, in adaptability, and in job creation for women and minorities, as well as in distressed or depressed areas.

With most of the world's business being conducted by small entrepreneurs, it makes good economic sense for governments to implement policies that encourage small-business growth. The five ways in which government can have the most positive effect are by making capital more accessible, facilitating business education, promoting entrepreneurship, reducing regulatory burdens, and protecting intellectual property.

There are many things that go into creating a successful small-business economy, but surely a significant one is a collection of entrepreneurs willing to start new businesses. For that to occur, citizens must be able to learn business skills. There are several ways in which governments can assist citizens. The community can create business incubators, as many universities in the U.S. do regularly. A business incubator is a facility that offers start-up businesses a place to grow. Typically, in business incubators professors and other experts donate their time and expertise teaching new entrepreneurs everything from sales and marketing to law and taxes. Once the would-be small-business owners conclude this crash course in business, they move on and start their own businesses, and new entrepreneurs come in to take their place.

Governments can offer universities financial incentives for creating on-campus business incubators. Communities can offer education and opportunities to use the Internet. Likewise, private-sector small-business experts can be hired to teach business skills online.

The Certified Management Accountants of Canada recently recommended to the Canadian Parliament that the best way to foster even more small-business growth is through changes in Canada's tax policies, such as: Reducing the corporate tax rate; offering tax credits for investments in training and education; and, increasing the deductions for investments.

Aside from lowering taxes to encourage business formation, it is important to reduce and eventually eliminate those government regulations that slow business development or encourage business overgrowth. The simpler and more expedited the regulatory process, the greater the likelihood of small-business expansion. Any government that wants to encourage small business needs to produce laws that protect the innovations of entrepreneurs. Innovation is at the very heart of small-business growth, but if innovations are not legally protected, entrepreneurs will be unlikely to engage in the risks necessary to invent new solutions to social problems. Accordingly, policies that protect patents, copyrights, and trademarks are critical for small businesses to flourish.

 

5.3.4.2.1.2.2. Protect Citizenship for a Nation

The rights of citizens used to be straight-forward, perhaps because the definition of a citizen was more straight-forward. As nations are becoming increasing complex and societies are becoming more socially and geographically mobile, there needs to be a reworking of the idea of citizenship.

Nations have the right to identify their citizens, and to offer them benefits. The citizens of a nation have made many investments and sacrifices to promote their own livelihood or the health of the nation. But, there are problems. There is an increasing tension between rights and obligations of citizenship. The differentiation of equal citizenship into group-related rights and special legal statuses, for multiple citizens, refugees, resident aliens, and transient foreigners, puts a strain on the membership. There is growing ambiguity about the collective identity of a people in a nation woth open government, and on the significance of citizenship as membership in a national political community.

Some rights are available to all people in a nation. The basic principle for this inclusion is stated by the 14th amendment of the U.S. constitution: "No State ... shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Protection is equal for citizens and foreigners; and it derives from being inside the territorial jurisdiction of a nation. Stated in this way, this is a universal human right whose corresponding obligations happen to fall upon a particular nation, in this case a the United States.

Although the nation has the power to limit citizenship, and the power to deny citizenship to settled first and second generations of immigrants, using this power will require constraint. Citizenship itself is not a right to anyone from outside. Although foreigners have access to basic human rights, they should not have the same access to citizenship and its benefits. T.H. Marshall described an evolutionary theory of citizenship, which is a cumulative development of the content of modern citizenship, which started from civil liberties, added political participation rights, and culminated in the concept of social citizenship based on universal entitlements to education and welfare.[ii]

The rights of citizens will be better protected, and the power of public security authorities will be more restricted, under a law on identity cards. A law on ID cards of residents could maintain a good balance between the administrative function of public security and the protection of citizens' rights,

 

5.3.4.2.1.3. Create Long-term Ecological Planning for a Nation

For nations that intend to have a long-term existence, it is necessary to have long-term plans, and these plans should reflect the importance of an ecological perspective. It is crucial to know what habitats and resources are within a nation, to be able to delineate them, and to evaluate their health. A national survey is needed. The nation must begin the survey, perhaps the first that any nation would have, immediately. And, it would need to be, not just a survey of animals and plants, but of every species, including viruses and bacteria, not just a survey of water resources, but of habitats and cycles.

When the survey is complete, monitoring must begin to verify the kinds and extents of changes. When the ecological environment is evaluated and understood, the nation should link population to the carrying capacity of the land. It should link the consumption levels of the population to productivity of the land and to its ability to take and recycle the waste from consumption.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.1. Survey All Resources: Measuring & Mapping Inventory

The first survey should start with the geological: Heat from the earth, thermal vents and volcanoes; geological formations, as well as specific elements. Then an assessment of those elements which should be left in the ground, and how, of those to be taken, they should be taken, and how the land should be replaced to what kind of condition.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.1.1. Air Water & Soil Resources

The air would be surveyed for circulation and quality, not just of the local system, but the entire airshed, which requires information from neighboring nations. The integrity, productivity, and sustainability of natural ecosystems are intimately linked to air quality.

Water would be surveyed, not just amounts and the purity of aquifers and watersheds, but its regional cycles also. For Water Quality, people would measure temperature, pH, oxygen, turbidity, and nitrogen. Water temperature is a result of a variety of energy transfer processes, including radiation from the sun. Some desirable fish, such as Adult Cutthroat trout and Coho salmon like temperatures around 10-14 degrees Celsius, with a lethal temperature about 25 degrees C. Eggs and juveniles are more sensitive to high temperatures, some being intolerant of temperatures above 10 degrees C. Increased temperatures raise the level of biological activity (a two-fold increase for a 10 degree increase in temperature) with resultant increase in need for oxygen.

Injury and death of terrestrial animals from airborne pollutants, such as metals and gases, have been observed since the 1870s. Soil ecosystems are a sink for many air pollutants; wildlife that inhabit the soil environment are sensitive to soil contamination. Air emissions can cause reductions in soil organisms and shifts in trophic structures, such as insectivorous bird species. A reduction or change in decomposers can result in a decrease in litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. The distribution and abundance of salamanders may be influenced by soil acidity. In the United States, approximately 50 percent of the species of frogs and toads and 30 percent of the species of salamanders use ephemeral forest ponds for reproduction. These small pools and ponds can be acidic because they receive snow melt and spring rains that have little contact with the soil buffering system. The problem is that atmospheric monitoring data is almost exclusively urban. The agencies have generally ignored the efficacy of gathering atmospheric impact data, so we have yet to find out the conditions across our forests. Local communities, schools, and individuals can join in the gathering of this important data, such as the pH of rain, ponds, streams and soils.

Land would be surveyed: Dirt, living rock, the shapes and stability of landforms. All of life will be either healthy or unhealthy according to the fertility of the soil. Most every culture that has inhabited the planet has come to such an awareness-many after it was too late. A strong concern must be expressed by both the public and agency specialists for scientifically-based data on soil resiliency, as well as on the relationships of soil characteristics and conditions to gains or losses in productivity and hydrologic activity. The maintenance of soil quality is one of the most important requirements for long term sustain ability of the productive capacity of forest ecosystems. There are tools and methods that provide early warning signals of impaired soil productivity. We cannot afford to ignore them.

Social and economic concerns make it desirable to regulate and monitor those management practices that have the potential to reduce soil productivity. If the intent is to collect soil condition data as part of a watershed assessment, then there has to be a model or framework existing to collect, process and interpret that data, and assign it to geographic information systems and data base layers. Soil, along with climate, landscape morphology, species diversity and other factors set the limits on productivity within a biome through the flow of nutrients, moisture, and air supply to the soil builders. Soil condition reflects a wide variety of other variables, and is therefore a direct and key indicator of site carrying capacity and landscape productivity.

Wild food and medicinal plants would be surveyed. Aesthetic resources, beautiful views, and enchanted places would also be surveyed.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.1.2. Productivity Resources

The productivity of the land would be measured. Ecosystems are dynamic: Trees and plants are the food source for all other organisms. Almost every food web is ultimately dependent on the amount of plant tissue or biomass available for consumption. The rate of growth of trees varies greatly in response to a range of environmental conditions, but most notably to climatic factors, such as solar radiation or moisture. Changes in growth rate are affected seasonally and are dependent on the stage in the life cycle of a particular species. The amount of plant tissue which is accumulated in a given area over a certain period of time is known as the primary productivity (explained again in a different way). A related concept is that of biomass (the standing crop), which is the amount of plant tissue in a given area at one point in time. Most methods for measuring primary productivity are based on the repetition of biomass measurements at several points in time, with the increase in biomass representing the net primary productivity.

Productivity studies are very important for a number of reasons. The studies: Indicate great deal about the dynamics of natural ecosystems; are of great value in agriculture and forestry, with domesticated and wild crops and resources; and, are useful in the study of plant-environment relationships through the application of bioassay techniques.

If samples of biomass are taken from the same area of vegetation at different times, any increase in the biomass figure between the two harvests is known as the biological yield or the net primary productivity of the community. Collection of biomass data is very time-consuming and is non-repeatable since the sample is destroyed in the process. The assumption is often made with regard to adjacent plots that both are exactly representative of the same community type. A further error can occur either at a clipping point or finding the proper diameter.

Often root biomass is not included, although of course it should be. Although investigators have tried just washing soil of those roots that are recovered, there is no satisfactory way of assessing root biomass, other than assigning it a percentage of above-ground growth. There are other problems accurately assessing biomass: grazing by herbivores may have occurred, grazing by insects is almost impossible to measure, or the tree may have shed leaves or limbs

On the other hand, how much vegetative cover do we need to keep the atmosphere functioning the way we like it? Carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulates in the atmosphere at the rate of 4 x 106 tons annually. Deforestation possibly releases about 2 x 106 tons of carbon per year, only a third as much as from fossil fuel combustion. Reforestation could remove carbon from the atmosphere. We need about 7 x 106 square kilometers of new forest to store 4 x 106 tons of carbon annually, according to George Woodwell's estimates.

Estimates of the minimum vegetative area for the planet are more difficult to arrive at. Houghton et al. (1990) suggest that the minimum should be about what remained in 1990: About 5.3 x 109 hectares, or 40 percent of the land area, although the area remaining that year is not definitely known.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.2. Monitor All Resource Use for a Nation

The monitoring should be a national effort, involving scientists as well as citizens groups and special organizations. The word 'monitor' means to observe for a special purpose or to regulate a machine or process, from Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. I.F. Spellerberg defines monitoring as the "systematic measurement of variables and processes over time for a specific reason," such as ensuring that standards are met. Monitoring is the measurement of the parameters that define patterns that indicate health or change in an ecosystem or place.

There are many groups at international and nationals levels measuring the environment in general. The U.S. Geological survey monitors hydrological cycles; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Organization studies climate. The United Nations, the Environmental Protection Agency, and The Nature Conservancy, among others, have established long-term ecological monitoring programs. The National Science Foundation administers a long-term program with a network of representative ecosystems, including forest ecosystems. Two of the research sites are the Harvard Forest (temperate deciduous forest) and the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest at Oregon State University.

There are different levels of monitoring, including environmental, biological, and ecological. Environmental monitoring is an umbrella for many activities, including climatic variables and geological processes; for example, the systematic recording of soil and air temperatures, humidity, air pressure are measured by meteorological organizations to predict long-term climatic change.

Biological monitoring, according to J. Cairns, is the regular, systematic use of organisms to determine environmental quality; that is, the state of the environment can be analyzed by how individuals react to pollutants,. British Columbia, for instance, uses target species of small mammals to intensively monitor the impacts of herbicides (which are used to try to control early succession) in the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone on Vancouver Island and the mainland; they put live-traps or pellets along transects to get counts of mostly mice and shrews. Biological monitoring has numerous subcategories, such as the biochemical, microbiological, epidemiological, and biotelemetry. Pollution affects the productivity of trees. Lead (from combustion engines) in tissues (which interferes with red blood cell survival in mammal bodies) can slow plant growth. Particulate matter (smoke, ash) impairs stomata in plants. Sulfur dioxide (from blast furnaces) causes tissue degeneration and interferes with enzymes in plants. Lichens are good indicators of sulfur dioxide pollution because different species vary in their tolerance; fruticose lichens are very sensitive, while crustose seem to be most tolerant. Acidification (from evaporation of wastes) comes from many acids, and depresses microbial activity and decomposition.

Ecological monitoring is the observation of communities to understand long-term ecological processes, such as succession and maturity. We will concentrate on environmental monitoring to chart changes in a forest, but we should always be aware of the other two.

Before monitoring can begin the objectives and data collection methods have to be nailed down. The purpose of the monitoring program has to be stated; the objectives have to be identified, for instance, the health of ecosystems. Health will probably be the first objective, followed by production or aesthetics. Health can be defined by a set of indicators of health, such as species, or patterns of health, such as stability or productivity. None of the indices that are measured are really adequate to define the health of an ecosystem because they cannot account for the complexity, richness, and cycling that goes on in the ecosystem. For that reason, health indices are data that need to be resolved on the ground in person by someone who knows the history of the forest and has a feel for it.

The basic medical definition of health used to be freedom from disease. Part of a new definition is resilience to stress-of course, there is good stress (eustress) as well as bad stress. Ecosystems respond to stresses in different ways, but usually through a decrease in the indices mentioned. The symptoms of ecosystem stress are major items to be monitored. Monitoring means collecting data. Data collection and analysis is a major consideration: Variables have to be chosen, methods have to be related to the variables, the time scale and frequency of collection have to be decided, the data has to be analyzed, and the data has to be presented and interpreted.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.2.1. Scale of Monitoring

Ecosystems are larger than patches; forests are larger than stands. We should be measuring at larger scales: Watershed, landscape, or biome. Although some of the technical tools, such as satellite imaging and GIS, have been discussed, many conceptual tools, such as the Gaia Hypothesis or global design, have been neglected.

Furthermore, we are measuring over a year or two only to establish a growth rate or productivity. We should be measuring over centuries. A forest, for instance, is a long-term changing being. We cannot use a short-term industrial approach to measure a few parameters and then pretend we know enough about a forest to cut a large percentage of it. Forests are created by slow processes that take hundreds or thousands of years. In their 36-year study of a 450-year old conifer forest in Washington, Franklin and DeBell (1988) projected that it would take the shade-intolerant Douglas fir 750 years to drop out of the forest. Maser points out how long it takes for coarse woody debris to decay (200-460 years). Soil formation takes millennia; rates can range from 50-100 years per centimeter.

The use of paleoecological techniques, such as pollen analysis, can provide information on some of these slow, long-term processes. For example, sediment cores from lakes in Eastern North America showed a steep decline in hemlock pollen about 5000 years before the present, according to Davis. Hemlock remained rare for 1000 years and took another 1000 years to return to its original frequency in eastern forests. Sediments can also be used to document forest fires and the frequency of fires.

Retrospective studies can be used to start or supplement long-term studies. Tree ring widths can also be used to study growth responses to changes (the science is called dendrochronology). For instance, Brubaker and Greene use ring widths to demonstrate that trees that were completely defoliated by tussock moths recovered and attained normal tree ring widths in 2 to 3 years. Trees attacked by spruce budworm were depressed for 5 years before recovering. Tree ring measurements also show that bristlecone pine in California established many trees at treeline up to 1600, when the numbers began to decline (no new trees), until 1900, when regeneration started again.[iii]

A forest is not a regular annual phenomenon-the kind favored by science. Ecological events in forests may be rare, like a volcanic eruption, or long-term episodic, like windstorms. Many events have not even been observed yet. In marginal habitats, for Ponderosa pine for example, reproductive patterns are highly episodic; in one 37-year period in Arizona, reproduction was abundant in only one year. The importance of insect infestations is overestimated without long-term studies of the forests in which they occur. Many other ecological processes, such as temperature or precipitation, are highly variable. Litterfall in old-growth Douglas fir forests has high annual variability. Finding a few gross patterns in a forest of complex processes is fairly easy; finding the subtle patterns is difficult without long-term comprehensive studies.

Water stress and ozone injury are easy to detect in trees, according to G.S. Puritch, but stress due to insect infestations or fungal diseases are much more difficult because there is little outward effect until the tree dies, although there are immediate metabolic changes to the tree. Remote sensing can detect some forms of damage immediately over inaccessible stands over large areas. Although not all forms of stress can be detected by remote sensing, there is still a lot of the spectrum (ultraviolet) that has not been investigated. On the other hand, on-the-ground monitoring is probably more labor-intensive and more expensive. The two styles of monitoring forests are supplementary; satellites can pick up dramatic changes, which can then be investigated on the ground. Satellites are not a replacement for ground work, however. Remote sensing and field work are complementary.

Several human activities affect carbon storage in forests: Deforestation, logging and degradation, and biomass burning. These activities, combined with other activities, such as burning fossil fuels may warm the atmosphere. This affects natural processes that add even more carbon to the atmosphere. For example, as they warm, Boreal forests lose carbon.

Trees depend on fungi to get their nutrients from the soil. Free-living bacteria fix nitrogen in the soil. Earthworms, termites, and other animals modify the soil. Birds, bats, bees, flies, and other insects pollinate flowers and trees. Squirrels and other vertebrates distribute the seeds of trees. We need to be monitoring every part of the web of interdependence. Monitoring everything will give us a better grasp of the health and normal changes in a forest-especially compared to interference or degradation through improper use. Perhaps if we had something to measure everything, an omnimeter. Monitoring should be as comprehensive as possible.

Monitoring shows how the forest is changing and at what rates. It shows what areas of the forest are critical for the functioning and ecological integrity of the forest. It may give an indication of how to rank values in the forest. It shows how use of the forest can be balanced and how the use can be zoned according to degrees of protection and use.

There are a number of problems or limitations with monitoring. The processes of many forest ecosystems have not been researched, so there is no baseline to compare measurements with (it is difficult to measure change without a baseline). Anthropogenic (human -caused) disturbances have long-term, synergistic (combined actions leading to emergent, unpredictable properties of a system), cumulative effects that are hard to trace. Furthermore, the complexity of the measurements and the limitations of laboratory facilities or labor; you will probably not be able to afford to send out for analysis for some chemicals and metals. And, finally, the costs are relatively high. The cost of investigating over a large area for a long time will be very high. The costs of satellite monitoring are high. Coverage of all forested areas on the planet would require 4200 Landsat scenes and cost over $4 million for current data.

To some extent these problems are the reason that monitoring is not a regular part of management plans. Monitoring is crucial to understanding forests. Until we understand how forests change and move around the landscapes, we will not know which changes are important and inevitable and which are the unhealthy result of human interference. Until we understand the changes, we will not be able to adjust our needs to the limits of forests.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.2.2. Establishing a Context for Ecosystem Monitoring

At the core is a scientific approach to account for the act of observing and recording the ecosystem. This approach is based on the following observations, made by Richard Hart: The actual substance of the environment consists of patterns rather than things or individual species. The forest environment is generated by a patterning of the ecological ebb and flow of energy, substances, individuals and species across a suitable landscape. The distinction between growing and declining patterns is not arbitrary, and can be arrived at objectively. And, the ecosystem environment is constituted of a large set of events that are objectively definable by specific outcomes.

The procedural consequences of these facts involve practical changes in the relationship: Between the earth and its species over space and time; between the earth and the collective ability of species to respond flexibly to situations beyond their normal patterning in the processes of adaptation and repair; in the flow of energy through the environment and its biotic community; and in the ecosystem's collective patterning of shared needs and governance which we will define as its health or soundness.

Taken as a whole, the process of observing patterns in these relationships leads directly to a fundamentally different way of perceiving ecosystem management. As Hart mentions, patterns are the key to understanding the nature of a forest. In some ways, patterns are prior to things, in helixes, light, fields, and ecology. Paul Shepard and others have written that relationships are as real as the objects that result from them. Ecology attends the overall pattern of relationships, beyond the details.

Individuals change continuously in an autonomous and purposive way according to a pattern, or a cycle or history. Individuals have a specific form or life cycle of forms, although taxonomists classify the adult organism and not larvae or eggs. The genotype determines the physical and chronological pattern of an organism within the limits of an environment and interactions-that is, an organism unfolds as an embedded part of an overfolding environment. The being of a species is the reality of the pattern of its members, that is self-sustaining, self-organizing, reproducing units (compare to the idea of other holons at other levels). Selection operates as a survival filter that passes any structure than has sufficient integrity to persist. The focus of analysis is on organic patterns in a life history rather than just traits.

The challenge to measuring and monitoring ecosystems is to address the patterns. But, the tools will have to be used in new ways in a new framework, perhaps with topology and holograms as metaphors (topology provides the mathematical model for processes, and a hologram provides a model for connected wholeness).

Based on a broader metaphysical foundation, with more comprehensive values, measuring (mensuration) and monitoring need to address patterns of being in an ecosystem and not just a few commodities dictated by a short-sighted economics supported by single-visioned science and technology based in a savage culture. One challenge is to identify the patterns and set up long-term programs to study them and relate them to sustainable use of ecosystems.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.3. Protect Resources for a Nation

Once the extent of the resources is known, once they have been categorized for use, or not, they need to be protected. Protection may be temporary, for future resources, or permanent, for areas critical to regional and global cycles.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.4. Save Important Ecological Areas for a Nation

Saving used to mean isolating the areas entirely from human use. But, human aesthetic use and human basic use, which is often done by archaic cultures, is often part of the process itself. Saving has to mean regulating use, but this is more concerned with reducing consumption below certain levels and not allowing large-scale use for external requirements.

Our species has been shaped by the earth. The desire to save forests, wetlands-all natural ecosystems-is an expression of deep human values (or perhaps a more basic survival instinct). Experience of wildness lets us capture some of our own wildness and authenticity. Our emotional response to the unfathomability of the ocean or luminosity of the desert is an expression of aspects of our fundamental being that are still in resonance with these forces.

We have learned that we cannot just save big trees or waterfalls or geological formations. We have to save the system that produced what we like. We have to save the process that produces big trees or spectacular forms. So, size is important. Thomas Lovejoy and others have made parallel arguments on species loss, leading to the idea of a minimum critical size for ecosystems. The minimum critical size is greater than the areas suggested by the species/area curve because of three reasons, Lovejoy says: species are identified by individuals, not breeding populations; the species/area relationships are derived from extensive habitats rather than the fragmented ones; and, higher trophic levels, such as tertiary predators, may be excluded from smaller areas-or, all species are nor equal. As an ecosystem is first reduced in size, it can still maintain its characteristic composition and species diversity as a self-sufficient, functioning whole. However, as it is fragmented and impoverished, more sensitive species drop out and its function is impaired. At some point, as the size is reduced below the minimum, the integrity of the system is compromised and the system collapses.

We have learned that shape is important also. We have to protect interior species and conditions as well as exterior. Edge effects started out as being centers for diversity. Now, many edge effects are considered to be destructive. In the 1940s, it was thought that edges should be increased to provide bountiful game crops. Edges have proven to be good for both game and wed species. Edge effects, however, are detrimental to populations adapted to forest interiors. Too many edges reduces forest diversity at local and regional scales. We have to anticipate global changes, such as climate.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.5. Restore Natural & Wild Areas as Necessary for a Nation

Restoration is one of the major ways to ensure the survival of species, habitats, territories, and ecological systems. Restoration projects have the potential to save entire ecosystems. Agricultural systems might save domesticated species. Restoration ecology, as a new discipline, tries to address the difficulties of deciding the goals and means of restoration, considering the lack of information about original systems and the loses of component species during the degradation or destruction of the wild ecosystems. The discipline attempts to create self-maintaining neopoetic systems characterized by complexity and diversity.

A holistic science such as landscape ecology addresses the overall patterns of large-scale ecosystems (biota), thus considering the biogeochemical, atmospheric, and hydrological cycles in relation to the shape and extent of individual landscapes. Landscape ecology can identify candidate ecosystems for restoration, as well as for preservation, conservation, or reservation; it can identify patterns of forestry to preserve larger functional islands.

A crisis science like conservation biology can make recommendations which would preserve diversity and complexity in forests, and would avoid numerous extinctions. The first recommendation is to stop logging old growth and mature natural forests, Then, promote cutting practices that respect the productivity and complexity, leaving snags, logs, and many-aged forests. Grant timber leases that are contingent on the maintenance of productivity and diversity of the land. Reduce fragmentation through the design of forested areas, taking into account the genetic diversity of the trees, catastrophic conditions, minimum viable populations, corridors, and edge effects. Other recommendations are to: Stop constructing new roads; close and revegetate old roads; restore clearcut areas; replant with native species; restore damaged streams and wetlands; restore natural connections, such as corridors and canals; and recommend that reserves be made large enough for minimum viable populations and minimum viable ecosystem areas. Restoration areas, which are set in a pattern by human activity, but may not need further intervention. All areas need plans.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.6. Conserve Use of Resources for a Nation

Natural resources were originally defined as objects provided by nature for human use. This concept has been expanded to include minerals, wildlife and people. The idea that everything should be managed is based on an extreme belief that nature is a resource to be processed. Furthermore, management is self-perpetuating and self-justifying. The objective of resource management is not to strengthen its defenses or funding, or to increase quality of life for affluent people in overdeveloped countries-it is to adjust the use of resources to address the needs of future generations.

In short, conservation management is based on economic objectives. And, as Leopold pointed out, the weakness of relying on economic motives is that most members of the earth's community, such as wildflowers and songbirds, have no economic value. Yet, all the members of the community contribute to the integrity of the whole, which is vital to maintaining what we do consider important. Those beings with no economic value are ignored, or worse, labeled as weeds or vermin and destroyed so that crops and animals with short-term advantages for human ends can be substituted.

Most conservation strategies are completely anthropocentric, from saving hunting grounds in the middle ages or resources this year. This plan proposes ecosystem conservation, which protects entire biotic communities: Genes, populations, species, habitats, associated traditional human cultures, and all the processes and interactions.

Conservation parks are a way to keep resources. Conservation parks are areas set aside for multiple use of resources without interfering with the operation of the ecosystems. Research may be conducted to answer questions as to whether the park is big enough and shaped correctly to constitute a proper habitat for its inhabitants. Human recreation would be permitted in temporary camps and with some light machinery, for example, the Boundary Waters Canoe area in the United States.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.6.1. Limit Use of Common Resources for a Nation

Common areas need to be preserved. Common areas can be used so that they are preserved in character and function. This can be done through the following limits: Limit access; limit use by large vehicles or houses or buildings; limit harvest; and, limit grazing. This may mean limiting the size of flocks to allow other wild grazing animals. Yet, statistics for instance put out by the University of Idaho (1980) indicate that, of the U.S. state of Idaho's over 52 million acres, almost 22 million (41.5 %) are rangelands, used for grazing, over 9.5 million (18 %) are croplands, and 2.5 million are paved, built over, or wasted. Hunting, grazing, and agriculture provoked large ecological disturbances.

Mammalian grazing promotes regrowth and the movement of seeds. Bison and prairie dogs were responsible for much of the character of the American plains, but cattle have led to fencing and the eradication of pests, which leaves the ground overeaten and muddy. The values of keeping healthy ecosystems, such as temperate or desert grasslands, are far more than the perceived losses from limiting domestic animals.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.6.2. Limit Use of Slowly Renewable Resources for a Nation

Slowly renewable resources can still be used, but with respect to their extents and rates of renewal. In general, we need to: Limit takes to the renewal rate; limit the styles of taking; and, require replanting. Charge the cost of use by replacement value, which may be substantial.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.6.3. Limit Aquifer Use to Recharge Rates for a Nation

First, we need to determine or survey aquifers, then determine recharge rates, then determine the value of water and the cost according to value. To supplement the use of aquifers, plan for the collection of rain or wastewater to reduce demand. Monitor all water use. Treat water aquifer as principle and flow as interest.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.6.4. Use & Limit Wild Harvest for a Nation

If large areas are to be allowed to operate with natural processes, then large areas have to be limited regarding human use or conversion. Perhaps, human use of wild lands, within limits, can continue, but it must be part of a total change, unlike permaculture and other strategies which can be practiced as part of an industrial lifestyle. Paul Shepard argues that 75% of the land area should be left wild in a techno-cynegetic society, so that human beings can return to the hunting and foraging lifestyles that shaped our species.

Even if a return to this style of life is not possible for most people in most nations, some ideas can be taken from it. Wild animals could be harvested for wild food, if it can be done with minimum disruption to their breeding and movement.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.7. Create Large Conservation and Wilderness Areas for a Nation

Create large conservation areas, such as the Wildlands from the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. to the Appalachians or Sonoran desert. The goal of the Wildlands Project is to set aside approximately half (fifty percent) of the North American continent as 'wild land' for the preservation of biological diversity, by creating 'reserve networks' across the continent, which would be composed of cores, buffers and corridors. The primary characteristics of core areas are that they are large (100,000 to 25 million acres), and allow for little, if any, human use. The primary characteristics of buffers are that they allow for limited human use so long as they are 'managed with native biodiversity as a preeminent concern.'

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.7.1. Conserve Places and Species for a Nation

We have always tried to exceed the physical and biological limits of places rather than recognize them and be guided by them. Most places exist in a uniquely identifiable ecosystem, with recognizable boundaries and a unique history and character. Modifying such places can change or diminish their uniqueness. We can conserve places and species by respecting their limits and limiting our exploitation.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.7.2. Privatize Communitize or Nationalize Resources

Some resources might be saved through a program of privatization. Perhaps we should privatize where applicable or reasonable. When something is privatized, the profit or loss accrues wholly to an individual or group, such as a corporation. Privatization is wonderful for individuals, farmers, and small businesses. It inspires people to work hard, save, and keep their efforts healthy, especially if a forest or farm is the basis for their efforts. Privatizations sandwiched Chinese efforts to grow crops efficiently and were found to be preferred by farmers. Privatization is a scale effect; it works at small scales where the individual knows the details of an operation and profits from their own efforts and restraints.

However, the privatization of large holdings to individuals and corporations does not seem to have worked well. With no sense of stewardship, with a focus on short-term profit, and with little understanding of ecology, land gets exhausted quickly, then used or sold for less profitable ventures, such as running cattle or building houses, which further degrade it. When land is put away from use, or rather for the exclusive use of one person or group, who does not always use it, then it may be conserved. Thus, kings or groups of monks quite often saved trees and forests by putting them behind walls and limiting access. It worked by accident. Larger patterns of land and things should be communitized, that is owned by whole communities, who would enforce rules for use and restrict access. Communities, like monasteries, are managed for long-term, sometimes with better ethics.

For whole regional systems, with watersheds, airsheds, and landscapes of ecosystems, nationalization is a better strategy. The nation can set aside whole systems. The nation can better balance resources with wilderness areas. The nation can take a larger view than the community, although both of their perspectives often are longer than that of an individual or business group.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.8. Implement National or Regional Ecological Goals

Once goals are identified and agreed upon, they can be implemented. National governments have been comfortable with short-term economic goals and a few ethical goals, but have neglected goals dealing with the ecosystems and climates.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.8.1. Anticipate Climate Change

The climate is changing. The changes have been documented. It is just that politicians, and most of their constituents, are slow to react to these changes, which after all seem slight. To a few the changes are threatening, not just to low-lying islands and a few corals, butterflies and trees, but to civilization. Global warming could lead to reversal of ocean currents and other unpleasant, deadly effects. What is the solution for climate change? Use alternative energy sources? Possibly, energy use could benefit from a high-tech solution. A massive development program, like that for the atom bomb, and with the same urgency, could develop and implement alternative energy technologies.

There are many less technical actions that could combat climate change. Planning could always consider greenhouse warming. CFCs and greenhouse gases could be phased out. Contributing agricultural problems could be corrected. Nations could consider full social cost pricing of energy, where the polluter pays. Deforestation could be halted; reforestation projects could be started. Biodiversity losses could be slowed or reversed. Efficient use of water could be increased. Aquifers should be protected. Consumption could be reduced; populations could be reduced. Nations could share data and participate in international projects.

 

5.3.4.2.1.3.8.2. Ecological Goals for a Nation

Regional goals are appropriate for bioregions and isotopes (literally similar places). Notice that the number of goals decreases as the scale gets larger.

Zone forests at the landscape level for preservation, conservation, or selection use

Maintain ecological and evolutionary processes in healthy forest landscapes

Preserve all old-growth-none of the new forestries can be a substitute for keeping the remaining old-growth, and no secondary forest can match old-growth for biological richness or ecological importance

End logging in national forests; President William Clinton's 1993 FEMAT reported that the only way to ensure a chance of maintaining viable populations of all species in PNW coastal forests was to halt all logging-Option 9 allows for extirpation or extinction of 800 species.

Diversify the institutions that deal with forests; relate people diversity to forest diversity

Eliminate government subsidies for timber harvesting

Reduce fragmentation of landscape patterns with responsible selection harvesting

Accept and plan for natural change, disturbance, uncertainty, ambiguity-it's part of the process

Restore forest cover in North America to pre-European levels

For the U.S., replant 142 million hectares of forest lands-up to 438 million hectares (the approximate level of cover in 1600)

For Canada, replant over 80 million hectares of forest, up to 530 million hectares

For the Northwest (Pacific Northwest coast forest, U.S. and CND), replant up to 47 million ha

For the Northeast (northern hardwoods), replant up to 11 million ha

For the Southeast (Oak-pine forest), replant up to 129 million ha

For other ecoregions, replant to a high percentage of 2000 BC levels, especially around the Mediterranean

Relate (or limit) population and consumption to the productivity of ecosystems-without such limits, forests will eventually be destroyed

 

5.3.4.2.1.4. Long-term Economic & Political Planning for a Nation

Human interactions become more violent as a result of competition, inequity, and limits, requiring more planning and social control. Local planning ignores limits and carrying capacity, long-term deficits and problems, other species, and ecosystems. Local planning is limited to a two to four-year cycle. Regional and global planning are virtually nonexistent. Crises sciences, such as conservation biology and ecoforestry, plan at the landscape level. Economic and political planning need to plan at this level also.

Planning in general means deciding on goals to be achieved in specific situations. For central planning by a federal government, the goals are usually small and not comprehensive, such as a cutting level or a single species preservation, and usually end up being a compromise in cost-benefit analysis. For forestry, it is the ideal timber goal, which is usually stated in terms of consumption, production, growth, or stock, each of which tries to satisfy the needs of the goal that precedes it, for example, attainment of the stock goal permits attainment of the growth goal.

Planning tends to neglect or dismiss the distribution of negative, uncertain, or nonmonetary effects, which are characteristic of much of nature. Furthermore, we seem to have no mechanism for developing long-range plans. Certainly, there seems to be no way to deal with long-term, slow catastrophes, such as deforestation.

Most plans address problems, such as building roads. Everything else, from employment to pests, is also considered as a problem, and not a direct effect of the cultural implementation of some technology or pattern. Most plans seem to be adequate at compiling area data, from topographic to climatic. Most plans are also development plans that are comprehensive in the sense of seeking to meet all needs of the public, agriculture, and industry. But, they fall prey to all the assumptions of the industrial culture. They tend to be multipurpose with the aim of providing maximum net benefits through management of forests and wildlife. Both uses of 'multipurpose' and 'maximum benefits' are based on misunderstandings. Multipurpose in practice means human use-perhaps even just one of those, logging; and maximum benefits have proven to be dangerous. Modern resource management strives for maximum sustainable yield, based on partial knowledge of species and great ignorance of ecosystems.

Development plans also tend to call for the eventual development of all resources in an area; British Columbia's intention to cut all the forests in the province is a good example. A one-world planned economy is an even greater threat, being based on unlimited industrial production, unlimited commodity consumption, increased exploitation of nature, and the free flow of resources and labor across cultural borders. This kind of planning requires the abandonment of local controls on development, trade, or lifestyles. Planning is thus characterized by a utilitarian globalism that denies value to the systems that support it.

As a result of central planning, the patterns of life have become the products of market forces and stylish transportation operating in a sterile abstract order. In The U.S. we are criticized by the French, not unreasonably, for having a 'frivolous' culture based on 'savage' capitalism. Capitalism increases the pressure for uniformity, a single pattern of existence. Formal development is more concerned with an assembly-line model-simple, isolated, efficient, and easy to maintain. We become remote from, and indifferent to, the system that supports us. We acquire unrealistic images of the world and harmful values and then make bad decisions based upon them. We have not developed qualitative indicators of ecological health or quantitative measures of social health, much less an ecocentric view that would value preserves of nature for themselves.

Problems are everywhere in management. Planning runs amuck, killing millions of living beings, including human beings; everybody plans, on every level, resulting in paper jams everywhere. National and international goals, and trading regulations, have become more important than local goals and considerations. There is an emphasis on microeconomics of situation, such as how much fertilizer, instead of macroeconomics, which might be more labor-intensive, but cost less to society in terms of welfare, unemployment, food stamps, and depressive addictions. The infatuation with economies of scale, which dictate increasing size as a solution to costs, but which ignore real optimal sizes for management units, creates problems. Forests are biological processes that are subject to considerable variation in output; management deals badly with uncertainty and diminished yields.

One solution to many of these problems is a reduction in scale for everything from forest use to management units, with local controls and local use primary. Management costs increase with the size of management units; more levels of human hierarchy are required to deal with problems; decisions are slower, and the people who make them are more remote from the site.

Obviously, a plan should consider the whole system, also. Human needs should be designed for an optimal fit within the limits of the system. Ecological planning considers the health of the system, which is based on intimate knowledge of the system. Direct observation and traditional knowledge yield far more 'information' about the societies of plants and animals than autopsies or mathematical models. A whole-system, comprehensive plan would proceed in stages:

1. Identify the place within its natural boundaries. Most places exist in a uniquely identifiable ecosystem, with recognizable boundaries and a unique history and character.

2. Calculate the optimum amount of wilderness to preserve the natural cycles indefinitely. If the current wild area is less than the calculations, restore the difference and set it aside as a preserve.

3. In the remaining area, zone areas for appropriate use, including conservation and artificial areas (roads or cabins).

4. Identify the resources needed for human use, including raw materials and the productivity of the areas. This productivity can be used to calculate rational exploitation.

5. Apply cultural modes-in style, values, and technology-to set limits on technology and population in the area to be supported.

We would examine the natural and cultural histories of a place, as part of our comprehensive plan, which is actually a deductive, synthetic, conceptual model based on data generated from research on biological productivity, the rates of resource use, cultural valuation, minimum wilderness preservation, air and water quality, genetic minima, nonrenewable resources, appropriate technological innovation, the importance of cultural frameworks, adventure, research, beauty, uniqueness, and other intangible experiences. A deductive approach is necessary because accurate measurements of productivities in most ecosystems are lacking and exactness in values is misleading. A synthetic approach is necessary to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. In combining measures of qualitative and quantitative, it is simpler to set aside the first and then to calculate the second. The model must be conceptual because of the inherent fuzziness of the systems. Assuming that a history and an inventory have been completed, we can identify which areas to preserve, which to protect, and which to use.

Planning is not meant to be a finished work of art-it has to reflect our understanding and use of the forest. Each activity needs to be fed back into the process of updating the plan. Implementing the plan should result in improvements to it.

 

5.3.4.2.1.4.1. National Planning to Survey Human & Cultural Needs

Abraham Maslow listed a full hierarchy of human needs: Physical needs, such as food, shelter, and clothing; 'safety' needs, including law, order, and security; 'psychological' needs characterized by belongingness and love; 'esteem' needs, such as strength, self-sufficiency, competence, freedom, attention, and prestige; and 'self-actualization' needs, like self-actualization, achievement, and creativity, which develop after other needs are satisfied.

But, human needs are based on the health of the earth. Human needs extend to include a foundation of wilderness. Human systems depend on natural ones, for recycling of wastes, water, and air. But, as human growth is logarithmic, so is human need, and need shapes facts, like the kind and quality of resources. Granting this, the need for wilderness is as much a fact as the need for food.

Surprising things can be discerned about living a good life: Once basic needs are met, for food shelter, respect, and confidence, then happiness is not increased much by more material goods or money. The things that make people unhappy are when the higher needs are not met. People try to balance their needs by acquiring more money or things. Lack of love or security, lack of communication or appreciation lead to unhappiness. But, the society and the culture have to be meaningful, as well as secure and equitable, with low extremes between wealth or status.

Similarly, there is a hierarchy of needs of a culture: To be grounded in place, to be secure or partly isolated; to have a dynamic order, with human health; to be complex and sophisticated, with checks and balances; to be comprehensive, to allow change and diversity; and, to have and manage adequate resources. Alas, sometimes cultural needs can be perverted, and the needs are almost completely defined in terms of commodities. Every relation needs a commodity, such as travel, to be fulfilled. Once the need is defined and partly satisfied, it becomes a right. From walking to unlimited passenger miles at high speed, a new 'right' was created in a mere fifty years.

On the psychological side, it is human values that ultimately determine what, where, and how we monitor management activities. Therefore, it is imperative that cultural values and natural processes be determined and monitored simultaneously. In this way, we can begin to understand which natural processes we use, or favor or discourage, in order to benefit our current value system. Monitoring and evaluation of indicators provides necessary information in understanding the human dimension as it relates to ecosystem management. What makes something valuable is not in its own properties but in its relation to the personal preferences of its perceivers. The usefulness of a thing or species does not rest entirely in its appearance but rather in its existence.

 

5.3.4.2.1.4.2. National Planning to Monitor Human & Social Resource Use

The Earth Summit's "Agenda For Change," states that a stable human dependence on natural resources is key to the protection of forest and range lands. Social and economic data is often compiled by standard political boundaries, not on provinces, sub-provinces, landscapes or project sites. Thus, socioeconomic data is not strictly comparable or usable at the sub-province, landscape or project site levels. However, the indicators listed can be either described or mapped onto geographic information systems (GIS), providing an opportunity for integration with other physical, chemical and biological indicators.

For instance, the indicator 'demographics' provides information on where people settle, how many there are, and what they do. This has a profound effect on the environment and its sustainable use and management. Information gathered from non-national sources would assist us in making sound decisions that integrate the diversity of the local and national human population. Data may include age distribution, in-migration, percent of population using resources directly (including recreation visitor days and employment), and where people settle-their distribution, and number including rural interface zoning, roads, type of industry, public services, communication lines, and types of community activities.

For cultural influences, information gathered through archaeological sources and studies provides information on the historic uses of the surrounding landscapes, and of associated human activities. This data may include ethnographic information and historic use patterns.

 

5.3.4.2.1.4.3. National Planning to Promote Efficiency of Resource Use

Data on local and regional economic health would help us to predict long range trends and landscape use patterns. Data may include real unit costs and price changes, income tied to resource activities, profitability of management, payments to government, percentages of products recycled or reused, changes in the distribution of employment and income, employment patterns tied to resource activities, rural interface land values, types of commerce, welfare payments into the community, and the economic base.

Data may include various land-use patterns such as percent of land base set-aside in protected areas, dispersed and concentrated recreation areas, grazing allotments, mining activities, vegetation or animal usage (game management areas, firewood, timber, special forest products, fishing spots, water withdrawals), and community contacts (retirees, business people, school faculties and staff, college students, community clubs, and tribes).

 

5.3.4.2.1.4.4. National Planning to Anticipate Technology Integration

Technology can be broadly defined as the material entities created by the application of mental and physical effort to nature in order to achieve some value. In its most common use, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to help solve problems. Technology is a technique that lets us use resources to produce products and solve problems; this technique feeds back into culture. Due to the increasingly widespread use of ever more complex technologies and their frequently unintended consequences, problems may arise in their use that are unknown or only partially addressed.

As tools increase in complexity, from knives and levers to computers and space stations, so does the knowledge needed to support them. Complex modern tools require libraries of information that has to be continually increased and improved.

Technology first simplifies life, then complicates it. The complex of cheap goods and complex tasks can lead to sweatshop slavery and unsolved wastes. Some problems are solved, but new ones are created by the unconsidered use of the technology-problems such as toxic waste or radioactive waste.

The use of technology has a great many effects; these may be separated into intended effects and unintended effects. Unintended effects are usually also unanticipated, and often unknown before the arrival of a new technology. Nevertheless, they are often as important as the intended effect. The most subtle 'side effects' of technology are often sociological. They are subtle because the effects may go unnoticed unless carefully observed and studied. These may involve gradually occurring changes in the behavior of individuals, groups, institutions, and even entire societies.

The implementation of technology influences the values of a society by changing expectations and realities. The implementation of technology is also influenced by values. There are major, interrelated values that inform, and are informed by, technological innovations. These realities and expectations may alter the world view of a culture, especially as regards efficiency, bureaucracy, or progress.

First, a nation has to define the goals of technology, from simple technique to the simplification of chores, or the concept of nonharm. Then, it has to analyze the results of technology, not just the mass production of crap, but the effects on human health and behavior. A nation has to discern what is missing from an application of technology, whether it is human scale or appropriateness. Then, a nation has to decide how to manage the technology.

Many new technologies are not managed for their perceived benefits or losses. Nanotechnology, for example, has the potential to clean chemicals and viruses from the human body, but some minute nanos could pass through various barriers in the body and interfere with brain processes. Technology can be used to develop renewable energy and restore damaged environments. Technology can be used to promote sustainable localized energy industries, with solar, wind, hydro, tidal, or biofuels. But, technology has to fit the scale and tempo of the environment. Technology has to be sustainable and replaceable.

A nation needs to address the effects, all of the effects including unwanted ones, of technology on business, culture, management, and the environment. Technology needs to be integrated into society. It needs to be made appropriate to the goals and desires of a culture. The notion of appropriate technology, however, was developed in the 20th century to describe situations where it was not desirable to use every new technology or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere. The eco-village movement emerged in part due to this concern.

Technology needs to be integrated into the entire environment. Some technologies have negative environmental side effects, such as pollution and lack of sustainability. Some technologies are designed specifically with the environment in mind, but most are designed first for economic or ergonomic effects. The effects of technology on the environment are both obvious and subtle. The more obvious effects include the depletion of nonrenewable natural resources, such as petroleum, coal, ores, and the added pollution of air, water, and land. The more subtle effects include debates over long-term effects, such as, global warming, deforestation, natural habitat destruction, and costal wetland loss.

 

5.3.4.2.1.4.5. National Planning to Encourage Vernacular Design

Ivan Illich points out that the term 'vernacular' is an old technical word used for Roman law, having to do with 'free' access from a commons or free ownership, such as getting offspring from an already owned donkey. As Illich further points out, the vernacular is the opposite of a commodity, that is, something for which one has to pay. Illich suggests, in the tradition of Schumacher, to use the term 'vernacular value' for those things made by individuals and groups that are not destined for the market. These values imply two kinds of technologies, however, one for mass-producing commodities for the market, and the other for the production of personal or community goods that remain in the community. Illich questions the use of the word production, but it is used here in the large sense, as in the production of edible matter by plants.

Ethics, politics and justice, in a commodity-centered society, are reduced to equitable distribution of commodities, according to Illich. But, the access to resources for vernacular and commodity productions, with lessened economic domination of the latter, can be equitable, without reducing politics to simple access. Illich suggests that there are two choices for educating in a technological society, regardless of whether the energy is hard or soft. People need more education to build solar collectors. Or, education needs to be made transparent by the engineering of tools. Illich's idea of the vernacular results in a great divide, not just of production and education, but of language, with an every-day vernacular language and a technical, formal language.

Vernacular architecture is a way that cultures express a shared heritage in patterns of construction of shelter. It is a term used by the academic architectural culture to categorize structures built by nonprofessional or untrained builders. Although modernity should not be cause for exclusion, true vernacular is most apparent in the archaic world where indigenous populations produce their own shelter based on traditions of using locally available materials. The definition can include a wide variety of structures, though domestic and agricultural buildings are the most common. Another distinguishing feature of vernacular architecture is that design and construction are often done simultaneously, onsite, with nonmanmade materials. Also, many of those who eventually use the building are involved in its construction, or at least have direct input in its form. Vernacular building shapes, construction techniques, and other characteristics are often generated from centuries-old local patterns. These patterns continually change and accumulate building craft while perpetuating cultural norms. Vernacular buildings have been praised by many for their sophisticated adaptation to the environment and user's needs.

We have forgotten that the whole purpose of architecture is not efficiency or luxury, but is time and space for living well. For living well, efficiency is unimportant. Shoveling a ditch for a septic tank does not require a minimum time or effort. If it is done well, it may require more time to avoid roots and worms and remove rocks, but it may work better and last longer.

Once seen as obsolete, vernacular architecture is now the subject of serious academic study, and is increasingly considered a potential component of sustainable development for its quality of adaptation to the local environment. Bernard Rudofsky[iv] argued for the legitimacy and "hard-won knowledge" inherent in vernacular buildings, from Polish salt-caves to gigantic Syrian water wheels and Moroccan desert fortresses. Paul Oliver has argued that vernacular architecture will be necessary in the future to "ensure sustainability in both cultural and economic terms beyond the short term."

 

5.3.4.2.1.4.6. Sponsor New Economies from Biodiversity

A nation can discover new economies from biodiversity, such as new crops or pharmaceutical plants. The tax use of such things related to biodiversity could generate income for the nation.

 

5.3.4.2.1.4.7. Specialize in One-trade Specialty

The 'checks and balances' of a complex number of predators, prey, and decomposers tends to dampen any one species from getting out of control (and becoming a pest). Organisms specialize to avoid competing. Relationships become more intimate, as organisms cooperate for survival advantage. Human groups like the pygmies have specialized to fit the requirements of the environment, successfully. Successful cultivation intensified the trading of cultivars and resources between groups and permitted further specialization. Village specialization may have been the best adaptation. As a result of surplus food and larger population, specialized people can create a flow of specialized objects.

Complex societies depend on production from resources. Increased complexity requires more information processing and more integration of disparate parts. The costs of communication increase. Complex societies need control and specialization. Yet, investment in complexity yields declining marginal returns because of the increasing size of bureaucracies, increasing taxation, and costs of internal control.

Overspecialization reduces flexibility and ability to change, but underspecialization reduces efficiency. Specialization is a way of limiting problems. If the numbers of specialties were reduced, there would be less overhead and higher returns.

According to David Ricardo, the patchy distribution of resources is not the only reason trade is profitable. Trading allows peoples to produce limited items more efficiently, allowing a better payback on their efforts.

Each nation would be an expert in one area and could reduce taxes in that area. In a global economy, economies of scale are not as important nationally. Therefore, nations do not have to be large at all to have scale advantages. Therefore, ethnic groups can form their own nations. The higher standards of living are gotten by clever trade and specialization, after self-reliance is achieved.

 

5.3.4.2.1.5. Balance Total Budgets for a Nation

A nation has to first identify the components, all the components, of the budget, that is all incoming and outgoing energy and materials, as well as symbolic wealth. When countries started taxing to raise revenue, it made sense to tax what they could. But, after centuries of dramatic growth and development, these old forms of income need to be shifted to forms that can shape self-reliant and constructive behavior. Perhaps tax shifts can put the budgets of nations back in balance.

The World Resources Institute argues that current taxes on capital and labor undermine economic efficiency. A tax on capital raises the cost of capital and thus discriminates against technological innovation. A tax on labor raises the cost of labor and thus reduces employment. Displacing these taxes with use and loss taxes would improve the productivity of the economy. "Unlike many other sources of federal revenue, a carbon tax would generate overall economic efficiency gains, regardless of how the revenues from the tax are used", say Dower and Repetto.

A high carbon tax coupled with reduced tax rates on income and profits, according to the World Resources Institute, could generate a possible gain of 45-80 cents per dollar of tax shifted. The gain comes not only from improved economic efficiency but from reduced investment in infrastructure and in reduced operating costs due to higher energy efficiency and in reduced environmental damage. The Danish government recently examined the impacts on their economy if they were to increase their carbon dioxide tax by about $25 per ton. The conclusion was that if the revenue generated were returned through income tax reductions there would be a loss in production and a rise in unemployment but if the revenue generated were returned by reducing the social security obligations of a business, employment and production would both rise.

A vigorous discussion is occurring throughout Europe about how to achieve the greatest economic efficiency and equity from tax shifting. Sophisticated models have shown that reducing the personal income tax might stimulate short term spending but has modest long term benefits. A better result might occur by directing the environmental tax revenues to expanding investment tax credits. However, that lowers the cost of new capital investments relative to labor and thus could increase unemployment. Also, higher growth could actually increase carbon dioxide emissions. A reduction in payroll taxes could help labor and an increase in investments in energy efficiency and renewables could reduce the linkages between growth and pollution. To balance these changes will be a challenge.

 

To see more, refer to the entire work.

 



[i] "The state of human development," United National Development Report 1998, Chapter 1, p.37.

[ii] T. H. Marshall, 1965.

[iii] LaMarche. 1973.

[iv] In his 1964 book Architecture Without Architects, a short introduction to non-pedigreed architecture, based on his MoMA exhibition.

Back to Eutopias main page.