5.3.4.3. Contributing to the International Level

A eutopian framework could be implemented immediately. Most global studies state or imply that change cannot be fast, that people cannot adjust, that social disruption would result, and that chaos would finish what ignorance and technology could not. The most serious drawback of these other studies and plans is the time of implementation. The first Club of Rome report claims a 20-year feedback lag. The Ecologist plan cites a social inability to adapt to rapid change, such that the attempt would be self-defeating. Everyone assumes the time scale remaining before collapse will be long enough for their plans to be implemented. But, these studies also propose slow, long-range plans, while warning at the same time that the earth is facing imminent, drastic change. If their plans are implemented too slowly, and if the population or pollution doubles again, surpassing some unrecognized critical level, there would be worse disruption. The Eutopian proposal is for immediate action, scaled on a week.

Sudden change is already a hallmark of industrial progress. Industrial cultures have replaced older patterns with great suddenness. Eutopias cannot seem more sudden than the loss of a home or place. Industrial cultures have reduced people's control over the means of production and power. Eutopias does not offer less control. Whole communities have been destroyed by industrial scale. Our social structures are already changing rapidly and impractically.

Let us take immediate action to make the changes conscious and more practical. Eutopias offers movement towards common, achievable goals. Eutopias would be a framework for cultures, where different human experiments are tried. Its variability would insure that we could reject any of the local visions that fail. People may object to giving up too much or not gaining enough. Eutopias may be called anti-human, anti-progress, anti-scientific, anti-technological, or anti-educational, but it is merely a new framework for conducting traditional human activities.

Natural environments and human societies are wobbling. Many contradictory impulses are leading to unbalance; some countries want to consolidate into economic powers and others want to secede into independent units. Human civilization will tear itself apart if we let it. We can slow it down and direct it.

The need to maintain our comfortable status for as long as possible, fatalism that nothing can be done or it is too late, prejudice, ignorance-all are keeping us from moving. There are other reasons not to move: failure of knowledge, failure of communication, failure of imagination, and failure of nerve. Much human suffering is caused by self-deception, which leads to isolation and then anger, reaction, and more suffering. Real change is difficult in this state, but change is more difficult for people who are starving or oppressed.

For most people in agrarian countries, even freedom from hunger and sickness is utopian. For most people in industrial countries, the choice of a fulfilling profession is utopian. Grinding poverty, economic dislocation, homelessness, are more painful than a transformation to Eutopias. Already most cultures have been transformed by cash crops, mining, tourists, highways, high-rise housing, and condominiums. Physical disruption has been more extensive than the transition to Eutopias could cause.

A long view seems meaningless when so much suffering already exists. An immediate, realistic, coordinated program of action is needed, capable of being implemented by communities and global agencies. We must face our responsibilities directly, declaring that there is no place in a eutopian society for monopolistic and multinational corporations, for the maniacal religion of merchandise, for genocidal military establishments, for urban explosion, for state socialism, for overbearing bureaucracies, or for technocratic politics, we must act to end them. The declaration must be political, through cooperative networks or leaderless consensus, by persuasion and example. The problem of human existence on the planet must be approached without deference to artificial boundaries of states, races, or castes. Poverty, pollution, repression, are concerns of every human community. We must stand and state that nature has limits, that we cannot have all we want.

The application must be immediate. The crisis of exponential growth and destruction cannot be solved just after some final limit is approached or passed. The crisis of ignorance cannot be solved by hurrying ahead and creating more problems. Paradoxically, the best thing to do is stop-stop growing, stop producing, stop running; suspend the race and contemplate a direction. We have been asking how the earth will survive its human populations and how they can be lowered. Let us just freeze growth and see what happens. Let us just freeze the populations-a year or decade of no births. We know that whole countries have lost a generation and continued. We know they have rebuilt again from ruins. We could build from recycled materials alone, so there is nothing to fear from stopping. Immediate social reforms, the reallocation of resources, and the preservation of wilderness are necessary, because of the nature of the problem; we cannot predict global climatic or ecosystemic catastrophes. Substantive change and research cannot be delayed until academic controversies are resolved.

The transformation must be complete; it cannot be done partially. Global political and economic institutions must all be changed. The Associated Nations must have authority for the preservation of nature and human cultures. Holistic change will permit the reorientation and balance of local institutions. For example, air pollution is not independent of industrial processes, transportation, and employment patterns. Communities must be of a size that their members can feel responsible for them. These changes are demanded by new s, ecological balance primarily among them. New institutions must be compatible with these new values.

The approach must be pragmatic and flexible. By its nature, the eutopian frame could reduce some of the stresses of transition, the uncertainty, ambivalence, or reversion. The readjustment to the realities of our new intricate involvement in the whole order of nature and her ecological balance will cause social swains. Some capital of energy and materials may be wasted. Population will be matched to solar budgets or net ecosystem productivities. Production will be redirected to communal needs in transportation, housing, food, and recreation.

There will be problems regarding the breakup into more natural cultural divisions. Some will want to decide boundaries by ecosystem; others through culture, watershed, or political power. The Associated Nations will have to decide when two groups claim the same place or when cultures combine through unions and conspiracies.

There will continue to be other problems. Cutting trees in Nepal causes floods in Bangladesh, and floods cause deaths because overcrowding has forced the poorest people to live on flood plains. The poor in the highlands everywhere effect those in the lowlands, often adversely. The quest for ecological balance means that some ecosystems must be maintained by systems managers, who often overmanage. The larger the human impact, the more control is necessary. Eutopias seeks to improve people's circumstances by enlisting them to save their environment and their way of life.

People cannot be given material equality instantly. But things can be leveled within a culture; cultures with excess may be taxed by the Associated Nations. Providing work for everyone is one way to narrow income differences. The AN, nations, communities, and families must provide it. Worthwhile work requires imagination. The large work force employed by military contracts in industrial countries will be dislocated at first, but that employment is supported by taxes, which could be reallocated for construction and deconstruction-so many highways, manufacturing plants and abandoned buildings.

Crime and civic unrest will not disappear. The Associated Nations and nations could reduce many kinds of global and victimless crimes with new policies. Because most cultures have strong policies regarding drugs, abortion, and prostitution, among other things, the AN would not impose rules on every crime. Dangerous weapons, from automatic guns to tanks, and dangerous products, including nuclear reactors and biocides, would be strictly regulated.

People will still make mistakes and bad choices in a Eutopian framework. But, if a form of government is bad or ineffective, they can alter it more easily. In the eutopian framework, they can learn from mistakes or unintended side-effects-as when doing good that causes evil. The scale is small, so the catastrophe is small. There will always be some injustice, inadequacy, and unpredictability. Large political and economic institutions have only made it worse. If Eutopias turns out not to be the proper framework to solve these problems, it might lead to a better way.

 

5.3.4.3.1. Implementing Immediate Steps for an International Body

The AN can be based on the UN, but with immediate responsibilities and powers, for protection and preservation, as well as some temporary powers, such as taxation. Too many things have happened in the past 100-500 years. The solutions need to be started now. Immediate steps are necessary to address catastrophic changes.

 

5.3.4.3.1.1. Creating Framework for International Body

The original charter of the United Nations (UN) restricted its activities to peace-keeping and human rights. While these are still important, other things need to be addressed, especially as they directly relate to concord and harmony (peace and health). Many things need to be done. New organizational bodies need to be created. These bodies would operate inside the new Association of Nations (AN) and be harmonized with existing bodies. Other bodies, such as the World Bank or International Monetary Fund, that operate parallel with the AN, must be reintegrated as part of the AN Financing. They must be governed by the AN executive branch, rather than by their own independent governing bodies, which are unduly influenced by wealthy countries. The AN needs to control it agencies and departments, as well as its financing.

The AN must have the power to define itself, to rewrite its charter so that it encompasses more than security and health, or expand those things to include all of human activities. Several studies of the UN, such as the Jackson and Pierson reports, have already focused on organizational efficiency-and efficiency has been the dominant factor in all bureaucracies for the past one hundred years-but the organization needs to be powerfully relevant to address the challenges that modern global trade has proposed to traditional cultures.

The AN can accept new nations as members. Membership in the AN needs to be opened to those states now represented by UNPO, that is, cultures, without recognition of their land, as well as other cultures that may not be landed at all. Recognition may also be granted to the regional association of cultures or nations.

Independent cultural areas within nations shall have the status of independent nations within the AN. Any culture would be given legal recognition, protection, and full autonomy over their boundaries by application to the AN, which would determine priority of claims (by archaic peoples, agriculturalists, pastoralists, or industrialists). No action would be taken to disband existing nations. Nations could still remain allied with old, larger nations as independent or dependent regions, although they would have only one vote at the highest federation. The nations would determine the use of allocated resources. Local economics and technology would provide for populations. Traditional religions and customs are maintained or permitted to develop.

The AN may consider whether it should extend recognition to voluntary economic associations, that by reason of size or power, such as some international corporations or regional industry associations, have great influence of capital and resources. Once membership is nonculturally or nonnationally based, however, it must be open to NonGovernmental Organizations, that may be dedicated to special interests or to preservations. And, then, perhaps the interests may be religious or spiritual. However, for voting purposes, nations or organizations may have to give up privileges as one or the other. On the other hand, the AN might require corporations and organizations to be based at the community or national level and participate in them materially.

The framework would allow a loose unity. For example, consider this lesson from fifteenth-century China: Too much unity stifles a creative advance; or this lesson from Europe: Too much disunity wrecks a creative advance. Europe had enough disunity to prevent unification, but not enough barriers to prevent the spread of technology and competition for technology. The role of the AN would be to provide just enough unity for nations to advance and develop. A eutopian framework is a form of 'balkanization' with limited barriers and limited unity. The barriers serve to protect the culture, its resources, its people and standard of living.

 

The AN would create a different structure than the UN. The AN could be modeled as a federal government, although it would be composed of independent nations. This would be necessary due to the responsibility of the UN for global issues and to coordinate nations. The AN would also guarantee fundamental environmental nonhuman rights, as well as human rights based on common things.

The AN would rework its constitution as a formal process of expressions and expectations. Traditionally a constitution is an agreement to divide into rulers and ruled. For the AN it would claim responsibility for all global affairs, including the environment and large weaponry.

The executive branch, the Secretariat, would be elected from the General Assembly. Seven to twelve members would be elected. They would elect a coordinator with the title of Secretary or Coordinator. It would have authority over all departments and agencies. It would mange the organization as an organic whole. The General Assembly, as a legislative branch, would make global and international laws. It would strengthen the Declaration of Human Rights (1945). It may make the planet into an incorporated entity. The judicial branch would be the International Court

Other branches may be separate and equal. Nations would nominate others for these branches. A Commission on the Earth would have the responsibility to consider all events in the environment from earthquakes to biodiversity. Other important Commissions would be the Commission on Beliefs and Religions and the Commission of the Heritage of Cultures.

The Office of Ombudsman would be expanded and strengthened. Although not traditionally a fourth branch of government, as first proposed in Sweden, its function would be to improve the effectiveness and fairness of the global government while protecting basic human and ambihuman rights. One strength would be its power to initiate legal proceedings in behalf of any human and ambihuman constituents or nations. It would be an independent branch with separate responsibilities: To investigate complaints against the UN or its officials for wrongdoing; to investigate complaints against nations; and, to investigate the operation of the UN.

 

5.3.4.3.1.2. Start Catastrophic Measures by the International Body

Because the challenges are immediate and because the consequences of not meeting them could be catastrophic, these things have to be started immediately. Of course, they are part of a process that may never be complete, like a one-time fix, but they have to be started immediately.

 

5.3.4.3.1.2.1. Transfer Powers to the International Body

The major military powers would grant their powers to the Associated Nations and relinquish their efforts towards global leadership; they also resign from the security council, cease propaganda activities, renounce foreign policy objectives, call back all soldiers from foreign countries, and stop giving away produce, factories, or weapons. They put their technical and educational surpluses at the disposal of the AN. If the USA or Russia is to be a world leader, let her lead in tolerance or in trust. Let her be the first to give allegiance to a world organizing body, the AN, the first to divest themselves of nuclear weapons. If they fear for safety, they need only remember the success of nonviolence in India or of guerrilla actions in Southeast Asia, Central America, or the Middle East.

 

5.3.4.3.1.2.2. Disarm Nations by International Body

In a separate essay entitled "Toward a World Social Contract," Kenneth Boulding examined possible global mechanisms to abate conflict within "Spaceship Earth," including "universal policed disarmament down to internal police levels" and "the organizational union of the armed forces of the world under a limited world government" - both of which are key elements of unfolding official U.S. government disarmament policies envisioning a world "effectively controlled" by the United Nations.

The 1945 UN Charter envisaged a system of regulation that would ensure "the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources." The advent of nuclear weapons came only weeks after the signing of the Charter and provided immediate impetus to concepts of arms limitation and disarmament. In fact, the first resolution of the first meeting of the General Assembly was entitled "The Establishment of a Commission to Deal with the Problems Raised by the Discovery of Atomic Energy" and called upon the commission to make specific proposals for "the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction."

The UN has established several forums to address multilateral disarmament issues. The principal ones are the First Committee of the General Assembly and the UN Disarmament Commission. Items on the agenda include consideration of the possible merits of a nuclear test ban, outer-space arms control, efforts to ban chemical weapons, nuclear and conventional disarmament, nuclear-weapon-free zones, reduction of military budgets, and measures to strengthen international security.

The Conference on Disarmament is a forum established by the international community for the negotiation of multilateral arms control and disarmament agreements. It has 66 members representing all areas of the world, including the five major nuclear-weapon states, the People's Republic of China, France, Russia, UK and U.S. While the conference is not formally a UN organization, it is linked to the UN through a personal representative of the Secretary-General; this representative serves as the secretary general of the conference. Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly often request the conference to consider specific disarmament matters. In turn, the conference annually reports its activities to the Assembly. The conference indicates that disarmament ideas are considered.

 

The U.S. must keep its own promise to give up nuclear weapons, which it made in 1970 when it signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The U.S. must terminate its $8 billion annual program to develop new weapons and agree to Russian President Putin's offer to reduce the mutual nuclear arsenals of about 10,000 weapons down to 1,000, or down the ante to zero.

The U.S. and Russia need find parity with the arsenals of the other nuclear weapons states, China, UK, France, and Israel, with stockpiles in the hundreds, and India, Pakistan, and North Korea each with less than one hundred bombs, should find reduction easier. China has offered to negotiate a treaty to eliminate all nuclear weapons and call every nuclear weapons state to the table. There already exists a plan for a model treaty prepared by scientists, lawyers, and policy makers, which was submitted to the UN as a discussion document. It lays out all the steps for dismantlement, verification, guarding, and monitoring the disassembled arsenals to insure that we will all be secure from nuclear break-out.

Russia and China have repeatedly offered a proposal in the UN General Assembly to ban weapons in space. That is the only way that those two nations will agree to join the U.S. in abolishing nuclear weapons. They do not want U.S. control and domination of space, which indeed is the aggressive mission statement of the U.S. Space Command, to gain military superiority over the whole planet. We must also replace the Non-Proliferation Treaty's guarantee of an 'inalienable right' to so-called 'peaceful' nuclear technology. This is the provision on which Iran is now lawfully relying. It could be nullified by establishing an International Sustainable Energy Agency and phasing out nuclear power. Every nuclear power plant is a potential bomb factory, so it would be impossible to eliminate nuclear weapons eliminating nuclear power.

 

An international body could disarm all nations; it could fund its work through the redistribution of the $200 billion in tax breaks and subsidies given to the nuclear and fossil fuel industries world-wide. The treaty negotiations and actual dismantlement of the nuclear arsenals could be done within weeks, although years or decades will probably be requested. If nuclear weapons were illegal, Iran and other nations might be willing to give up new, smaller programs.

All other nuclear weapons nations have indicated that they would be willing to give up their nuclear weapons, numbering in the 100s or 10s, if the larger nations do. The U.S. has been the biggest block to the efforts to stop proliferation. It is naive to believe that anything less than the elimination of nuclear weapons will reduce the possibilities of nuclear war and the unimaginable catastrophes that would follow a nuclear winter.

Elimination of nuclear weapons will not stop wars, although it is less likely that wars could be as destructive or final. Other weapons of 'mass destruction' also need to be reduced and controlled, especially long-range guns or automatic missiles. These weapons are designed to kill as many people as possible as quickly and cheaply as possible, regardless of their status as combatants or civilians. The International AN could work to bring every arsenal to parity.

 

5.3.4.3.1.2.2.1. Take or Destroy Nuclear or Large-scale Weapons

Complete disarmament could be accomplished within a week. Earl Osborn proposes this concept of sudden disarmament in response to the tedious phase-out envisioned by most plans. An agreement would not involve much negotiation. Taking this first step would add to the prestige of the country bold enough to do it. The AN could post a police force to disable all military ordinance. A thousand planes each carrying one hundred trained inspectors could be distributed at all major centers in the nuclear countries within 24 hours.

 

5.3.4.3.1.2.2.2. Allow Personal Weapons in International Body

For Nations, the AN would make available cruise missiles at some agreed-upon level. For individuals, it would allow personal weapons from hands and knives to arrows and single shot guns, depending on national choices and limits.

 

5.3.4.3.1.2.3. Start Year of Consideration through International Body

The Associated Nations promotes a year of consideration. Starting with population growth, all economic growth, or expansion of claims, would be suspended. Age grouping would be discontinuous for a while, if further years of consideration were necessary. Certain poisons or chemicals, especially greenhouse gases and other chemical additives that destroy ozone, would be discontinued in use.

 

5.3.4.3.1.2.4. Start Equity Measures by International Body

The global environment needs to be equalized also. If every nation or person has certain rights to land and resources, then those have to be respected and adjusted. Some AN taxes would be designed to repair the inequity from hundreds of years of unfair trading or accumulation.

 

5.3.4.3.1.2.5. Implement Global Ecological Goals

Global goals apply to the planet as a whole, for Gaia as a metaphor for the living planet. They are not simply the sum of local and regional goals. The AN would:

Reimplement international initiatives to slow deforestation-the UN notes that previous initiatives accelerated deforestation, as in Cameroon, where log production is to double in the forest, home to 50,000 Pygmies with a unique and valuable cosmology and life-style

Plant and maintain forests sufficient to guarantee indefinite support of known and unknown global biogeochemical cycles

Protect fragile ecosystems with global importance

Reduce threats to ecosystems from acid rain and other nonpoint-source pollutions to less than 5 percent of present values

Plant 9 million ha of trees each year to meet current demands; for soil and water conservation, plant another 6 million hectares (at an estimated cost of $6 billion dollars); and plant 110 million hectares just to catch up with cutting

For the planet, reforest 1.4 billion hectares to restore the 30-40% forest cover removed in the past 3000 years.

 

5.3.4.3.2. Managing Nations

The AN would take responsibility to manage the interrelationships of nations, to try to coordinate trade, reduce conflicts, and foster respect for other nations and cultures.

 

5.3.4.3.2.1. Create a Charter & Constitution for Associated Nations

The Charter of a global association has to expand the original charter for the United Nations. It needs a formal constitution that spells out additional responsibilities. The constitution would indicate how the Association would relate to nations, corporations, alliances, and NGOs.

Global organization should be in the form of a heterarchy, a multi-level structure integrated at regional and national levels. Community levels would self-reliant, but linked with other communities into nations and regional alliances, The regional alliances would not be allowed voting rights separate from their components in the AN. The regions would be too large to be manageable. Corporations currently that did not have to have a cultural or territorial base might be given temporary status until they were integrated.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2. Create New Structure & Branches of Associated Nations

Because a global association will have more responsibilities than the United Nations, it must create a new structure, with new branches and agencies.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1. General Assembly (Legislative) for All Nations

The General Assembly would include old and new nations. Conceivably, the number of nations could become 3000, more or less. The General Assembly would make all laws and rules.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.0.1. Define Limits of Global Law

Global law would be directed at global interactions relating to nations and corporations. It would also address global resources and problems that follow from the cycles and uses of resources.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.0.2. Make Laws

The UN made laws against war. The AN must expand those laws and be prepared to enforce them. Laws also need to passed to address other human concerns, such as slavery or internal violence. Laws have to be proposed to control international spread of disease. A whole set of laws is needed to control global resources.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.1. Office of Normalization & Nationalization

The AN has to issue its challenge to allow cultures or provinces join the organization to have one vote. Any culture or province would have the right to apply for membership. The size and form of nations would begin to decentralize and normalize. The requirements for nationhood would be basic: A traditional culture, traditional territory, or the size and uniformity of people. Although new nations would vote independently, they could maintain a regional association with other small nations.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.2. Office of Standards for Ecosystems Nations & Trade

Through a eutopian program the Association of Nations (AN) could set up and enforce international ecological rules of trade, for including environmental costs into the prices of things. Economists, especially global economists, have not much considered these 'externalities' which are really free internalities, free so far, because they have been big and plentiful. To compete in an open arena with fixed economic policies and no ecological policies, nations often squander their ecological capital to be competitive in the short-term. There has been no reason political or economic to save resources to be sustainable in the long-run.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3. Office of Budget: Secure & Balance Budget

This office would be concerned with funding the AN. Where will money come from? What do we have now? Footloose food and crazed capital? In the form of dues, contributions and the sales of stickers? The new office would have to coordinate the income from taxes on global resources and rents and fees on common lands, such as Antarctica.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1. Income for International Framework

Right now, the income from member nations is related to their GNP, a partial indication of relative gross product. With the capability of taxation, the AN would not rely as much on voluntary national gifts. Although the AN would tax global resources, such as land and air, it could also tax weapons quite heavily. In fact, Ervin Laszlo suggests an international body could tax military expenditures of nations instead of the simple GNP. This would ensure that nations that produced the most weapons would pay the most for the effects of those weapons.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.1. Rent for International Framework

The AN could charge rent for global lands and oceans. Ownership of much of the planet would be through a corporation or department. The use of these areas or resources would be rented for the long-term. But, they would also be monitored by the AN.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.2. Membership Dues for International Framework

For the UN, member nations now have to pay a percentage or a flat rate. The United States has the maximum assessed contribution to the UN regular budget-22%. In 2005 the assessed amount is $439,611,612. Actual U.S. contributions to the UN in 2005 totaled $1,959,053,000. This included the regular budget, peacekeeping operations, international tribunals, specialized agencies and subsidiary organizations. The minimum assessed contribution is 0.001%. The scale of assessments for each UN member for the required contributions to the regular budget is determined every 3 years on the basis of Gross National Product (GNP).

Only nine countries (starting with the largest contributor: United States, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Canada, Spain, China) contribute 75% of the entire regular budget. Cuba, which accounts for much of the behavior of the UN Human Rights Commission and its Sub-Commission, contributes 0.043% of the regular budget. Oil-rich Saudi Arabia contributes 0.713%.

In addition to their contributions to the UN regular budget, member states contribute to the peacekeeping operations budget and the cost of international courts and tribunals. The level of these contributions is based on their assessed contributions to the regular budget plus variations which take account of permanent membership on the Security Council. UN members also make voluntary contributions to UN specialized agencies and subsidiary organizations. The administrative costs of such bodies, though, are met from the regular budget.

The UN could acquire much more money if the assessment were related to the defense budget of a country instead of its GNP. This would reduce military research and spending. The U.S. defense budget, for instance, was $343 billion a year, almost 200 times its UN membership fee. That kind of assessment would discourage military build-up and perhaps reduce military spending.

Membership dues would be phased out over five years, until tax, rent and other income programs are operating.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.3. Taxes on Global Things

This term in its most extended sense includes all contributions imposed by the global association upon nations, cultures, or individuals for the service of the association, by whatever name they are called: Tribute, tithe, talliage, impost, duty, gabel, custom, subsidy, aid, supply, excise, or other. Taxes are any charge of money or property imposed by the association upon individuals or entities that are within the authority to assess such charges. Most modern taxes are levied on the basis of economic measurements such as income, consumption, property, and wealth. These taxes would be uniquely applied to global things or processes or to nations.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.3.1. Use Taxes on Global Elements Cycles

Use taxes would have the effect of limiting the use of nonrenewable resources, such as coal or oil, or the use of slowly renewables resources, such as forest products or fish, located in global commons, such as the atmosphere or oceans. This would discourage overexploitation of previously 'free' resources.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.3.2. Loss Taxes on Global Resources

The loss tax is on things or processes that interfere with other things and processes, things that cause runaway feedback or the destruction of cycles, things in other words that reduce our continued use of and enjoyment of the earth. This tax would have the effect of internalizing both ecological and social costs; since all consumers would be paying the real costs, no consumers would be protected. It should also have the effect of reducing pollution. The purpose of this kind of tax is to change behavior that depletes resources and discourages labor. It also can pay for the damage caused by misplaced or misused resources, such as the destruction of ozone by special chemicals.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.3.3. Adjustment Taxes on Global Sin & Pollution

There would be no necessity for sin taxes, unless they were necessary to support explicit AN institutions on health, or for use of such things in International areas. International pollution would be taxed, however. Especially industrial and agricultural pollution.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.3.4. Distribution Taxes on Global Things

Distribution taxes have the function of reapportioning wealth. These taxes would be assessed in international waters and lands. They would be on luxuries or incomes that have evaded national and community taxes.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.4. Licensing for a Global Association

A license is a formal authorization by law to do something, such as marry, hunt, or practice medicine. The AN may issue international licenses for some purposes.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.4.1. Licensing International Corporations

Corporations that have no land base, or that have evaded local charters would be subject to a license with the AN.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.4.2. Licensing Satellites & Media

Satellites, carriers (or spacecraft), and any items in sublunar or solar system space would be licensed by the AN. These fees would be used for tracking and cleanup. Licenses would be required for wave communications in international areas. Due to the global aspect of waves, it might be necessary to coordinate all media among nations.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.4.3. Licensing National Weapons

All weapons of a certain kind, from automatic weapons to cruise missiles, would be licensed by the AN. These weapons would be for national police forces and the police force of the AN. Their possession or use would be banned for individuals.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.4.4. Other Licenses

The Associated Nations might offer international drivers licenses. Licenses would be required for collecting in international places.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.5. Fees & Tolls for a Global Association

Fees would be charged to save, restore, and maintain the common wealth of humanity. Such fees would be charged to nations.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.5.1. Global Fees on Common Human Wealth & Great Art

Although much of the common heritage of the humanity on the planet would be free to observe or visit, fees would be charged to limit access. Fees would also be used for special costs such as cleanup. This fee might be applied to special areas of the planet or for works of art that are considered the heritage of humanity, such as many cave paintings or desert designs.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.5.2. Global Fees on Wilderness

Global wilderness areas, such as Antarctica or the North Pacific Sea, would have limited access. The fees would also support research in these areas.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.1.6. Labor for Global Projects

The AN could use scientists from other countries. It would also use volunteers from many nations to work on international projects. It could have a formal two-year volunteer program, similar to the programs of nations, but without conscription.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.2. Payout for a Global Association

At this level all costs, including environmental and social, have been internalized. The AN has to be able to guarantee that all unintended costs are being paid, as a result of the economic activities of nations.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.2.1. Operate Organization & Agencies

The AN has as large a bureaucracy as any national government, in fact, larger than the largest national government. However, since there is an overlap of responsibilities and so many things are duplicated on lower levels, the AN will essentially be a coordinator. Nevertheless, it will have a large number of agencies, as well as the separate governing functions and commissions.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.2.1.1. Health Supplement

Traditionally, an international body has been concerned with the levels of health of the people of all nations. One function is to make sure that the lower levels of health are improving faster.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.2.1.2. Education Supplement

Traditionally, an international body has also been concerned with equalizing educational opportunities for people in every nation. The AN would be responsible to providing education on the common heritage of humanity and on the global environment and history.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.2.1.3. Global Planning

Planning is a large part of a global order. The AN must plan for many contingencies that nations may not have to face independently.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.2.1.4. Global Resource Surveying & Monitoring

Monitoring is crucial for nations and a global order. No coordinated effort has ever been made to inventory, assess and monitor the ecological systems of the planet. The AN would do this.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.2.2. Restore Global Cycles or Places

Many places have been impacted by the international problems of pollution and simplification of land, and disruption of global ecological cycles. The AN would develop programs for restoration.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.1.3.2.3. Create Set-aside Accounts for Global Catastrophes

A large part of the finances and efforts of a global association have to be concerned with global changes in climate and geology. These sometimes catastrophic changes are an integral part of the change and aging of the planet. They have to be anticipated, prepared for, and responded to.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2. Executive Branch of Global Association

The executive branch of the global association makes sure that the global laws of the AN are obeyed. Other functions of the branch are: To execute policies; to control policies; to appoint officials; to command the police force; and, to veto legislation. The executive branch has to be formed from the assembly of national representatives. It has to be relatively large, and it has to have salaries, support monies, and travel monies.

In addition to global laws, the Executive Branch would have to oversee the enforcement of laws by nations, especially where the two levels overlap.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.1. Coordinators of Global Association

The Secretary, equivalent to the former Secretary-General of the UN, would be the head of the Executive Branch. The Secretary would be elected from the General Assembly and serve a term of six years. The Secretary help from the Assistant Secretary, Police Chief, department heads, and heads of independent agencies. The Assistant Secretary would be head of the legislature and next in line to head the branch. The Police Chief would be head of all AN police forces. The Department heads would advise the Secretary on issues and help carry out policies. Independent Agencies would help carry out policy or provide special services.

The executive branch could be headed by an Executive Council of the department and agency heads; these offices would elect the Assistant Secretary.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2. Security Council of Global Association

The Security Council would be composed of twelve people elected by the General Assembly every three years. There would be no permanent members. The Council would elect its own Secretary to speak for the Council. The veto power would be replaced with consensus.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.1. Assess Threats (Internal & External)

The Security council is concerned with any kind of threat to the global order and the orders of nations and nature. Many of these threats are internal, as nations enter into conflicts with other nations. These threats can be handled by delegations or police actions. But, many threats are external to the planet. They come from the solar system or interstellar space and tend to be physical.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.1.1. International Conflict

Widespread poverty may cause catastrophes. Richer countries will need to recognize that the poverty of others is not in their interest, especially as potential markets. Inequity may never be erased. Perhaps some inequity is good and stimulating, but gross inequity needs to be limited.

Each culture develops rules for living together. A common culture provides an ideal framework for public and private decision making. The Sami in northern Scandinavia have institutionalized ways of avoiding conflict, for instance, by shaming those who would impose their will. The Fipa of Tanzania use cooperative exchange rather than competition to keep the peace. The Akawaio of Guyana believe that community disharmony upsets the spirit world, resulting in illness and misfortune.

Conflicts, territorial or symbolic, are symptoms of insecurity. Many of our wasteful conflicts could be more easily resolved through a neutral international power. Conflicts would still occur. Conflicts over prestige or power, as much as for various crusades as for a true state, still lead to human and environmental destruction. The Security Council would be charged with the responsibility to avoid massively destructive forms of conflict, such as biological war or nuclear war.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.1.2. Global Threats

The planet is still a very active planet. Some threats to humanity rise from the normal activities of the planet, such as volcano-building or continental drift.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.1.2.1. Geological Threats

Typical geological threats include earthquakes volcanoes, and mudslides; rare threats may be comets or sunspot activity. While technology may be able to retard some of these threats or counter them early, the best solutions are design. Cities can be moved from floodplains; cities can be required to have quake-resistant buildings.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.1.2.1.1. Climatic Threats

Someone said that civilizations exist through the consent of geology; however, the consent of the 'first empire of climate' might also be needed. Climate is a constant and immediate challenge. Many variables affect climate. One variation, with a long cycle of perhaps 100 million years, is continental drift. When Panama closed, it forced the gulf stream north. The earth's orbit around the sun, a 100,000 cycle, also changes climate. This is close to the spacing of ice ages. Other smaller cycles, at 10,000 years or 6,100 years are minor harmonics perhaps. Other activities that influence climate are sunspots, comets, and volcanoes. The most stable periods seem to be the coldest or warmest weathers. For instance, 400,000 years ago, a warm period lasted 25,000 years. If we are in a 10,000 year warm period, it may be almost up. This means that predictions are relevant.

Cooling can lead to disease and depopulation, which can lead to cooling. Farmland is abandoned to trees in times of collapse. Because trees take CO2 out of the atmosphere, the regrowth of forests after the plagues in 1322-1351 in Europe and China, would have allowed drops in CO2, which would have allowed climate to cool some.

The years 1997 to 2004 broke most heat and storm records, especially as some of the warmest years on record. We experienced 500-year floods, droughts of the century, and other extremes. Some of these events have been related to greenhouse effects.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.1.2.1.2. Oceanic Threats

Ocean currents affect not only islands and coasts, but they affect the entire climates of continents. For example, the effects of the Pacific El Nino current can be linked to droughts in India and China in the past 150 years that caused three times the deaths of the Black Death, and more than the 60 million who died in WWII.

There does not seem to be a single trigger for El Nino. One has to do with water overflow and then back flow from the western pacific. Others have to do with sunspots, which would reduce radiation, or volcanic eruptions. Many of these atmospheric, oceanic and geophysical triggers may converge. Nineteenth-century famines may be correlated with ENSO events that influenced China, Indonesia, Brazil, and southeast Africa.

The adherence to political colonialization and 'free market' economics, along with climate changes, made the suffering in famines worse. Millions died within the market system of the golden age of liberal capitalism. Thus, the famines were political and economic failures. Even at the height of the famines in 1877-78 and the 1890, Britain continued to export grain from India to England, which had its own agricultural downturn. The invisible hand did not lift those starving in India or China. There was starvation before the British, especially during El Nino events in 1596 and 1630, but many droughts did not result in such widespread and deep famines. Market economics and politics magnified the effects. The market economy can spread risk, through insurance companies, when crises are local and intermittent, but they may not be able to respond when the crises are global and ubiquitous. As the risks increase everywhere, fewer things can be done.

Other movements of water, such as tsunamis or floods, can be linked to earth movements, such as landslides or earthquakes.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.1.2.2. Solar System Threats

Solar energy is not quite constant; over millennia it has been increasing; over the next billion years it will start decreasing. Collisions with asteroids or comets will always be a threat due to the nature of the solar system. The passage of the solar system through dust clouds will effect the climate of the planet and the solar output. The AN could plan to deal with asteroids and comets.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.2. Provide Security using a Police Force

Countries scramble to identify and claim resources that they need, fighting for them if necessary. Resources in short supply include water, timber, and fossil fuels. Countries strive for resource security, but this leads to further fighting and instability. Traditional ownership is stretched, leading to new disputes. All of these conflicts are the kind that could be resolved by the AN. Cooperative solutions are more durable and effective. Violence only leads to resentment and further violence. The AN has to have either the most weapons in the largest police force or the best moral stance.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.2.1. Expand Police Force

Peacekeeping, as defined by the Association of Nations, is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for a sustainable situation of concord. AN peacekeepers-police, rather than soldiers and military officers-civilian police officers and civilian personnel from many countries would monitor and observe peace processes that emerge in post-conflict situations and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. All operations must include the resolution of conflicts through the use of force to be considered valid under the charter of the Association of Nations.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.2.2. Use Police Force

The Charter of the Association of Nations would give the AN Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. For this reason, the international community should look to the Security Council to authorize peacekeeping operations. Most of these operations would established and implemented by the AN itself with police serving under AN operational command. In other cases, where direct AN involvement is not considered appropriate or feasible, the Council would authorize regional organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Economic Community of West African States or coalitions of willing countries to implement certain peacekeeping or peace enforcement functions. In modern times, peacekeeping operations have evolved into many different functions, including diplomatic relations with other countries, international bodies of justice, such as the International Criminal Court, and eliminating problems, such as landmines, that can lead to new incidents of suffering or fighting.

The AN would be expected to have many operations around the world, similar to the peace operations of the UN. Recent operations of the UN in Africa include the Burundi Civil War (2004), the Civil war in Cte d'Ivoire (2004), Second Congo War (1999, United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Second Liberian Civil War (2003), the Eritrean-Ethiopian War (2000), the North/South Civil War and Darfur conflict (2005), and the Moroccan occupation of Western Sahara. In the Americas, the UN monitored the 2004 Haiti rebellion. In Asia, the UN was involved in: The 1949 Indo-Pakistani Wars. In Europe, the UN put itself in: The 1964 Cyprus dispute, the 1993 Abkhazian War, and the 1999 Kosovo War. In the Middle East, the UN participated in the 1974 Agreed withdrawal by Syrian and Israeli forces following the Yom Kippur War, the 1978 withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon, and the 1948 various ceasefires and assists.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.2.2.1. Deal with International Conflicts

The police force would be entrusted to try nonviolence as a first response. In some cases police would be unarmed. If not that did not work, police would use weapons.

Conflict cannot be separated from other things, such as environmental destruction or inequities. For that reason, the Security Council and its force has to consider the broadest meaning of security: It is for people to have the resources and opportunities to provide themselves with their needs. Thus, security has to be addressed on many levels. For example, what do forests have to do with peace? Of the fourteen nations requiring UN peace-keeping operations since 1990, twelve of them have lost over 90 percent of their forests. Perhaps peace-keeping should be abetted by tree-planting. As ecosystems are destabilized, nations become less stable, and must be helped with more than social conflicts.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.2.2.2.2. Protect against Interference Events or Disasters

Police would be expected to be prepared for natural disasters, including the extraterrestrial. The police would focus on the prevention of man-made disasters, from watersheds that were compromised to chemical spills. Collisions with asteroids will always be a threat due to the nature of the solar system.

The flexibility of a natural ecosystem to respond to change has been reduced, so either we have to take over control, which could cost quite a lot, or we have to adapt to the diminishment after some climatic episode.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3. Agencies for a Global Association

Agencies of the Association of Nations are necessary organs to present information and research to the main branches of the Association.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3.1. Food & Shelter Agency

This agency is devoted to monitoring the food and shelter requirements and deficiencies of groups in every nation. It would provide information for traditional or ecological ways to build food supplies or shelters. Through international volunteers, it may provide help in the form of expertise and labor.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3.2. All Energy Agency

This energy agency would consider all possibilities: Human energy, animals, fire or combustion, fossil fuel, solar energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, and nuclear energy from fission or fusion. It may recommend and sponsor less hazardous kinds of energy use, such as solar energy and wind energy. It would also work to make sure that energy is not wasted; this may mean building or converting more efficient houses. Without the conservation of energy, giant wind farms or solar farms will dominate the landscape, ruin the scale and be possibly as hazardous as fossil fuels or nuclear power plants.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3.3. Transportation Agency

Transportation is a global phenomenon. Many kinds of transportation use the atmosphere and oceans-in fact many new proposals have to do with the undersea environment. The AN would monitor or control traffic in the global commons.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3.4. Economics Support Agency

Economies are tied together now in global patterns. They might be overconnected. This agency would provide information on economic weaknesses and problems to nations. It would act to provide alternatives to some kinds of economic practices and suggest practices that would eliminate the worst excesses.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3.5. Education Support Agency

Education needs to be stressed. The goal of education is for people to choose within limits-limits on wealth, waste, and freedoms that might endanger others. Education allows people to choose without being conditioned by brainwashing or dishonest advertising. The UN supported programs to enhance education, and it established the United Nations University for Peace, Costa Rica (a nation that has abolished its army), as an institution of higher learning for education for peace. The AN would continue these kind of efforts.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3.6. Health Agency

Health needs to be stressed, in every nation. The AN needs to monitor global disease and threats, to reduce chronic disease. Chronic diseases are neglected conditions. Chronic diseases represent a huge proportion of human illness. They include cardiovascular disease (30% of projected total worldwide deaths in 2005), cancer (13%), chronic respiratory diseases (7%), and diabetes (2%). Two risk factors underlying these conditions are key to any population-wide strategy of control: Tobacco use and obesity. These risks and the diseases they engender are not the exclusive preserve of rich nations. Chronic diseases are a larger problem in low-income settings. Research into chronic diseases in resource-poor nations indicates that it is critical to intervene early in the course of any epidemic. Fast intervention could save many millions of lives.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3.7. Communications & Technology Agency

There is a need for the development and delivery of a strategy for schools and other learning and skills institutions. This agency could provide strategic leadership in the innovative and effective use of communications and technology to enable the transformation of learning, teaching and educational organizations for the benefit of every learner.

The agency would be charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. Its jurisdiction would cover in fact every nation and international areas.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3.8. Research Agency

This Agency is the central research and development organization for the planet. It manages and directs selected basic and applied research and development projects for the international body and member nations. It pursues research and technology where risk and payoff are both very high and where success may provide dramatic advances for issues of global importance.

The reductionist path taken by science has yielded tremendous results about how the world is built up out of particles and molecules. Now that we have uncovered the complexity, we need to address relationships. This is where the synthetic path can help, by identifying emergent principles and operations. Science as an open, self-referential, self-correcting system capable of using analytic and synthetic methods. Even if traditional science addresses new areas of research, its approach has significant limitations. The predicate logic it uses, for instance, tends to support either-or interpretations.

Advances in science have been quite remarkable. How can it continue being remarkable, but applicable to whole systems? While pure research continues to reveal unimaginable details of the ecosystems, and while applied research continues to support sophisticated use, more ecological and landscape research is needed. Certification requires much better scientific research to determine minimum, optimum, maximum, or satisfactory numbers of features, i.e., a satisfactory number of overstory trees that can be removed, or the optimum percentage of trees to be left to maintain forest health. Research is expensive, time-consuming, labor-intensive, and uncertain, however.

To be truly comprehensive, scientific modeling must start with deductive, synthetic, conceptual, historical models based on data generated from research, the rates of resource use, cultural valuation, minimum wilderness preservation, air and water quality, genetic minima, nonrenewable resources, appropriate technological innovation, the importance of cultural frameworks, adventure, research, beauty, uniqueness, and other intangible experiences. A deductive approach is necessary because accurate measurements of productivities in most ecosystems are lacking and exactness in values is misleading. A synthetic approach is necessary to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. The approach must be conceptual because of the inherent fuzziness of systems; this does not mean that fuzzy systems could not be used to arrive at fuzzy quantities and fuzzy solutions, which are useful and valid. A historical approach is necessary because forests are very long-lived entities, and we do have anecdotal and scientific information about the historical range of forests.

Long-term research is especially important in forest ecosystems, since many of the components live hundreds and thousands of years, and the forest itself can live far longer. Long-term research requires different levels of monitoring, including environmental, biological, and ecological. Environmental monitoring is an umbrella for many activities, including climatic variables and geological processes; for example, the systematic recording of soil and air temperatures, humidity, air pressure are measured by meteorological organizations to predict long-term climatic change. Long-term research also depends on a stable cultural base and shared values between generations.

Other kinds of research needed equally are: Historical research, fire research, productivity research, mortality patterns, mature ecosystem research, key species, artifact interaction, and genetic research.

 

5.3.4.3.2.2.2.3.9. Business & Corporations Agency

Businesses and corporations sometimes have more people, money and power than nations. This agency would be concerned with monitoring and assisting these entities, to ensure that they do not violate the norms of nations or take advantage of cultural limits.

 

To find out more, refer to the entire work.

 

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